Quy trình - Kỹ thuật trồng dưa hấu - AGRICULTURE
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Quy trình – Kỹ thuật trồng dưa hấu

Posted On September 9, 2016 at 10:57 am by / 92 Comments

Dưa hấu là loại trái cây thông dụng trong mỗi gia đình, đặc biệt khi thời tiết sắp trở nên oi bức, nóng nực. Dưa hấu có vị ngọt mát, không những ngon mà còn có giá trị thương phẩm cao. Vietnamnongnghiepsach.vn hướng dẫn bà con kỹ thuật trồng dưa hấu hiệu quả và năng suất.

trồng dưa hấu

1. Thời vụ: Nước ta có thể trồng dưa hấu hầu như quanh năm.
Vụ sớm : Gieo trồng vào tháng 10 dương lịch và thu hoạch vào dịp cuối tháng 12 DL; Vụ chính: Gieo trồng tháng 11 DL và thu hoạch vào dịp gần Tết Nguyên Đán; Vụ hè: Gieo trồng vào tháng 2 – 5 DL.

2. Gieo hạt, ươm cây con:
Lượng hạt giống hợp lý để trồng 1ha dưa hấu là khoảng 500gr – 1000 gr. Phơi hạt nơi nắng nhẹ 1 – 1.5 giờ, để hạt nguội rồi ngâm vào nước sạch 3 – 5 giờ, vớt hạt ra, rửa sạch cho hết nhớt rồi gói hạt trong khăn ẩm, ủ hạt 1 – 1.5 ngày ở nhiệt độ 25 – 28 độ C cho nảy mầm. Gieo hạt trong bầu là tốt nhất, vì tiện cho việc chăm sóc cây con và có thời gian chuẩn bị đất trồng chu đáo hơn. Làm luống rộng trung bình 70 – 80 cm, cao trung bình 15 – 25 cm, ở nơi có ánh sáng và phải thoáng gió để có thể đặt bầu.

3. Sửa soạn đất, trồng cây:
– Nếu trồng trên đất ruộng, nên làm đất sau khi thu hoạch. Chú ý dọn sạch cỏ dại, cày lại 1 lượt, bừa 1 – 2 lượt rồi đào mương để lên líp.
– Khoảng cách luống trung bình 2 – 3 m cho luống đơn và trung bình 5 – 6 m cho luống đôi. Mương tưới nước rộng trung bình 30 – 40 cm, sâu khoảng 50 cm. Bố trí theo hướng đông tây để cây nhận được nhiều ánh sáng. Luống trồng nên rộng 70 – 80 cm, cao 15 – 25 cm. Muốn có năng suất cao nên trồng 2,3 – 2,5 m x 0,5 – 0,6 m, nghĩa là mật độ 8.000 cây/ha.
– Cây con khi được 5 – 7 ngày tuổi, đã có 1 – 2 lá thật thì đem trồng. Tưới nước nhiều, tiếp đó rạch bao nylon rồi đặt bầu vào lỗ đã đục sẵn.

4. Bón phân – chăm sóc:
Bón các loại phân chuồng hoại, tro trấu càng nhiều càng tốt, để làm bầu và bỏ vào hốc; vôi bột khoảng 200kg/ha, cần trộn đều vào đất bột; phân hoá học với lượng phân cho 1ha/vụ: 230kg urê + 350kg DAP + 170kg clorua kali.
– Bón lót khoảng 1/5 tổng lượng phân, có thể bón đều trên mặt liếp hoặc bón theo hàng, theo hốc trước khi bằm đất lần cuối.
– Sau khi đặt bầu 3-5 ngày (gieo hạt 5-6 ngày) dùng DAP hoặc urê pha loãng (0,2-0,3%) tưới vào mỗi buổi chiều, 2 ngày/lần, tăng lượng phân vào các lần tưới sau.
– Bón thúc lần 1 khi dưa hấu bắt đầu bò (13-15 ngày), rạch rãnh các gốc 25-35cm hướng dưa bò, bón 1/5 lượng phân DAP hay NPK rồi lấp đất lại.
– Bón thúc lần 2 khi dưa hấu bắt đầu ra hoa (20-25 ngày), rạch rãnh các gốc 35-45cm, bón 1/5 tổng lượng phân rồi lấp đất.
– Bón thúc nuôi trái khi hái trái xong (40-50 ngày), bón 2/5 lượng phân còn lại, chia làm nhiều lần bón, cách nhau 2-3 ngày.

Vườn dưa hấu

5. Một số sâu hại dưa hấu quan trọng:
– Bọ dưa: Phòng trừ bằng cách xua đuổi bằng tay, bắt, dùng vợt hoặc phun thuốc Baythroid, Politrin, Admire, BISAD 0.5 ME liều lượng 10 – 20 ml/ bình 12 – 15 lít nước. Rải thuốc hạt Basudin, Vibam ở gốc cây dưa sau khi trồng và trước khi cây ra hoa (kết hợp khi bón phân thúc).
– Sâu vẽ bùa: Phun thuốc Ofunack, Polirin, Fenvalerate, Oncol, Sumicidin, BISAD 0.5 ME liều lượng 15 – 20 ml/bình 12 – 15 lít nước.
– Bọ trĩ: Kiểm tra đồng ruộng thường xuyên; phun thuốc ngay khi mật độ bọ trĩ còn thấp (3 – 4 con/lá); thay đổi lọai thuốc thường xuyên để tránh bọ trĩ kháng thuốc; thuốc hữu hiệu là: Regen, Danitol, Admire, Oncol, Confidor. FEAT 25 EC liều lượng 15 – 20 ml/ bình 12 – 15 lít nước.

6. Thu hoạch dưa hấu:
Thu hoạch dưa hấu khi trái có độ chín 80%, khoảng 70 ngày sau khi trồng.
Cần ngưng tưới nước khoảng 5 ngày trước khi thu hoạch giúp dưa ngọt, để được lâu và ít bị vỡ khi vận chuyển. Ngưng bón phân và phun thuốc trước khoảng 10 ngày thu hoạch.

vietnamnongnghiepsach.vn chúc bà con thành công!
Nguồn: Tổng hợp.

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