BỆNH NẤM MỐC BỘT – AGRICULTURE
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BỆNH NẤM MỐC BỘT

Posted On February 24, 2017 at 7:55 am by / 194 Comments

BỆNH NẤM MỐC BỘT TRÊN CÂY ỚT


Mầm bệnh: Leveillula taurica (giai đoạn bất toàn = Oidiopsis taurica)

CÁC TRIỆU CHỨNG VÀ DẤU HIỆU

Nấm mốc bột chủ yếu ảnh hưởng đến lá cây ớt. Mặc dù bệnh thường xảy ra ở những lá già ngay trước hoặc trong khi cây ra quả, bệnh vẫn có thể phát triển ở bất cứ giai đoạn phát triển nào của cây ớt. Các triệu chứng bao gồm lá bị loang lổ, trắng, vết loang bột ngày càng rộng và hợp lại để bao phủ toàn bộ bề mặt dưới của lá. Qua thời gian, vết loang bột cũng sẽ hiện diện ở mặt trên của lá. Lá ớt có nấm mốc phát triển ở mặt dưới có thể đổi sang màu vàng nhợt hay nâu nhạt loang lổ ở mặt trên. Các viền của lá nhiễm nấm có thể cuộn lên phía trên để lộ vết loang nấm bột màu trắng. Các lá bệnh rụng khỏi cây và làm cho cây ớt bị phơi nắng nhiều và có thể dẫn đến cháy nắng.

NHẬN XÉT VỀ BỆNH

Nấm mốc bột có thể đặc biệt nghiêm trọng trong những tháng nóng và có thể gây ra mất mùa nặng. Mầm bệnh có phạm vi vật chủ rất rộng và có thể lây truyền giữa những loài khác nhau. Ở California, nấm mốc bột có thể đến từ những cây trồng như hành, bông, cà chua, tất cả các loài ớt, và các loài cây cỏ dại như cây diếp gai và tầm bóp (thù lù).

Mầm bệnh nấm mốc bột này khác với những mầm bệnh nấm mốc bột ở các giống cây khác mà bệnh xảy ra chủ yếu bên trong lá thay vì trên bề mặt lá. Cleistothecia (bào tử hữu tính) của Leveillula ở giai đoạn toàn diện hiếm khi xảy ra, nhưng các bào tử vô tính (conidia) được sản sinh và được gió gieo rắc. Nói chung, độ ẩm cao tạo điều kiện cho conidia nẩy mầm. Sự lây nhiễm nấm của cây trồng có thể xảy ra trong một phạm vi nhiệt độ rộng (18° đến 33°C) ở cả nhiệt độ cao lẫn nhiệt độ thấp. Trong những điều kiện thích hợp, sự lây nhiễm thứ cấp xảy ra cứ 7 đến 10 ngày, và bệnh có thể lan truyền nhanh chóng. Nhiệt độ trên 35°C có thể tạm thời ngân cản sự phát triển của bệnh nấm mốc bột.

XỬ LÝ

Việc thường xuyên theo dõi để phát hiện nấm mốc bột, đặc biệt là trong thời tiết ấm, là rất quan trọng để áp dụng các loại thuốc diệt nấm kịp thời để ngăn ngừa thiệt hại. Nấm mốc bột được xử lý chủ yếu bằng thuốc diệt nấm.

Kiểm Soát Cây Trồng

Loài nấm gây ra mốc bột có thể tồn tại trong thời gian các mùa vụ trên những cây trồng khác và các loài cỏ dại. Mức độ sống sót tùy thuộc vào các điều kiện môi trường. Do phạm vi vật chủ rộng lớn của nấm, rất khó để kiểm soát lượng mầm bệnh qua mùa đông. Do đó, những phương pháp vệ sinh đơn giản trong và xung quanh các ruộng ớt có thể không làm giảm mầm bệnh đủ để kiểm soát bệnh này.

Phần lớn các giống ớt không có mức độ kháng bệnh mốc bột khả quan. Hiện tại, chưa có chương trình gây giống nào nhằm mục đích phát triển các giống ớt kháng bệnh nấm mốc bột.

Các Phương Pháp Được Chấp Nhận Là Hữu Cơ

Phun lưu huỳnh và kali bicarbonate được chấp nhận sử dụng trong trồng ớt hữu cơ.

Các Quyết Định Xử Lý

Các loại thuốc diệt nấm có thể giúp kiểm soát bệnh hiệu quả và ngăn chặn tổn thất kinh tế nếu áp dụng trong những giai đoạn đầu nhiễm bệnh. Để kiểm soát hiệu quả cần phải phun với áp suất cao và lượng nước lớn để thuốc diệt nấm đạt được sự xâm nhập tối ưu vào các tán cây. Sự phun phủ tốt là rất cần thiết; phun trên đất sẽ phủ tốt hơn phun trên không.

Tên phổ thông Lượng dùng mỗi hecta R.E.I.+ P.H.I.+
(tên thương mại)   (giờ) (ngày)

Khi chọn một loại thuốc sâu, hãy cân nhắc các thông tin liên quan đến chất lượng môi trường. Không phải tất cả các thuốc trừ sâu có đăng ký đều được nêu ra. Hãy luôn đọc kỹ nhãn của sản phẩm được sử dụng.
 
A. SULFUR DF# 5,6 kg 24 0
  TÊN (SỐ HIỆU1) NHÓM CÁCH XỬ LÝ: Tiếp xúc đa điểm (M2)
  CHÚ THÍCH: Chỉ kiểm soát một phần ngay cả khi phun sớm. Để ngăn ngừa sự tổn thương cho cây trồng, không phun trong vòng 2 tuần nếu đã phun dầu.
 
B. AZOXYSTROBIN
  (Quadris) 450–1.150 ml 4 0
  TÊN (SỐ HIỆU1) NHÓM CÁCH XỬ LÝ: Chất gây ức chế bên ngoài Quinon (11)
 
C. PYRACLOSTROBIN
  (Cabrio EG) 600–900 ml 12 0
  TÊN (SỐ HIỆU1) NHÓM CÁCH XỬ LÝ: Chất gây ức chế bên ngoài Quinon (11)
  CHÚ THÍCH: Không phun quá 6 lần mỗi mùa.
 
D. MYCLOBUTANIL
  (Rally 40W) 300 ml 24 0
  TÊN (SỐ HIỆU1) NHÓM CÁCH XỬ LÝ: Chất gây ức chế khử mety(3)
  CHÚ THÍCH: Không phun quá 4 lần mỗi năm. Không phun quá 1.4 kg/ha.
 
E. QUINOXYFEN
  (Quintec) 300–450 ml 12 3
  TÊN (SỐ HIỆU1) NHÓM CÁCH XỬ LÝ: Quinolin (13)
  CHÚ THÍCH: Dùng để thay thế luân phiên sau mỗi lần sử dụng một loại thuốc diệt nấm có nhóm cách xử lý khác.
 
F. TRIFLOXYSTROBIN
  (Flint) 110–150 ml 12 3
  TÊN (SỐ HIỆU1) NHÓM CÁCH XỬ LÝ: Chất gây ức chế bên ngoài Quinon (11)
 
G. POTASSIUM BICARBONATE
  (Kaligreen) 180–220 ml 4 1
  CÁCH XỬ LÝ: Một loại muối vô cơ.
  CHÚ THÍCH: Tuy sản phẩm này đã được thử nghiệm cho những loại cây trồng khác, nghiên cứu vẫn đang thiếu dữ liệu sử dụng cho cây ớt và các quan sát cho thấy rằng sản phẩm chỉ giúp kiểm soát một phần. Phun phủ kỹ và thường xuyên là điều cần thiết.
 
** Xem nhãn để biết tỷ lệ pha loãng.
+ Khoảng thời gian hạn chế vào (R.E.I.) là số giờ (trừ khi được ghi khác) từ khi phun thuốc cho đến khi có thể bước vào khu vực được phun mà không cần đồ bảo hộ. Khoảng thời gian trước thu hoạch (P.H.I.) là số ngày từ khi phun thuốc đến khi được thu hoạch. Trong một số trường hợp REI vượt PHI. Trong hai chỉ số này, chỉ số nào dài hơn sẽ là thời gian tối thiểu phải bỏ qua trước khi thu hoạch.
# Được chấp nhận sử dụng trong trồng trọt hữu cơ.
1 Luân phiên các hóa chất với một số hiệu Nhóm cách-xử-lý khác nhau, và không sử dụng các sản phẩm có cùng một số hiệu Nhóm cách-xử-lý hơn hai lần mỗi mùa để đề phòng sâu bệnh kháng thuốc. Ví dụ, the organophosphates có số hiệu Nhóm 1B; các hóa chất có số hiệu Nhóm 1B nên được thay thế bằng các hóa chất có một số hiệu Nhóm khác 1B. Các số hiệu Nhóm cách-xử-lý được chỉ định bởi IRAC (Ban Xử Lý Kháng Thuốc Trừ Sâu).

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