BỆNH THỐI RỄ, THỐI NGỌN VÀ THỐI MẦM TRÊN CÂY ỚT – AGRICULTURE
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BỆNH THỐI RỄ, THỐI NGỌN VÀ THỐI MẦM TRÊN CÂY ỚT

Posted On February 25, 2017 at 5:01 am by / 957 Comments

Nguyên nhân:

+ Nấm Phytophthora capsici.

+ Nấm Pythium aphanidermatum.

+ Nấm Pythium spp khác.

CÁC TRIỆU CHỨNG VÀ DẤU HIỆU

Úng nước chủ yếu do nấm Pythium spp gây ra. Hạt giống bị úng nước sẽ không nẩy mầm được hoặc héo cong và chết ngay sau khi nẩy mầm.

Thân cây thường có một màu tối, nhăn nheo ở phần dưới lớp đất. Tình trạng úng nước thường giới hạn ở những khu vực thoát nước kém hoặc đất nén quá chặt, nhưng cả ruộng ớt có thể bị ảnh hưởng, đặc biệt là nếu cây non gặp mưa nhiều.

Bệnh thối rễ và ngọn chủ yếu do nấm Phytophthora capsici gây ra. Các triệu chứng trên những cây ớt bị nhiễm là cây bị héo và chết. Kiểm tra kỹ lưỡng rễ và các thân cây là rất cần thiết để xác nhận nguyên nhân của bệnh.

Bệnh có thể phát triển ở bất cứ giai đoạn phát triển nào của ớt. Các rễ cái và những rễ nhánh nhỏ hơn bị sũng nước, bị biến màu nâu rất đậm trên bề mặt, vỏ, và các mô mạch. Rất ít rễ nhánh sống được ở những cây ớt bị bệnh và rễ cái cũng có thể bị ngắn hơn so với những cây ớt khỏe mạnh.

Sự khác biệt nổi bật nhất giữa những cây ớt khỏe và cây ớt bệnh là tổng khối lượng các mô rễ. Các thân cây thường bị ảnh hưởng ở nơi tiếp giáp đất. Những thương tổn của thân cây trước tiên trở nên màu xanh lá đậm và sũng nước, sau đó là khô đi và chuyển sang màu nâu.

Một điểm thương tổn có thể làm thân bị thắt lại, dẫn đến phần cây phía trên điểm thương tổn bị héo và hậu quả là cây bị chết. Trong một số điều kiện, nấm P. capsici cũng có thể làm cho lá nâu và úa trên cây ớt.

Một bệnh phát sinh từ đất khác của của cây ớt là héo do nấm Verticillium, cũng gây ra những triệu chứng trên lá tương tự như các bệnh thối rễ và ngọn; tuy nhiên, bệnh héo do nấm Verticillium không làm cho bề mặt và vỏ rễ chuyển màu nâu hay bị thối. Ngược lại, các mô gỗ của phần thân và rễ còn lại của cây ớt nhiễm nấm Verticillium dahliae bị biến màu từ nâu đến đen

NHẬN XÉT VỀ BỆNH

Bệnh do nấm P. capcisi gây ra có thể phát triển ở bất cứ giai đoạn phát triển nào, nhưng một khi mầm cây ớt đạt đến giai đoạn 2 hoặc 3 lá, chúng thường không dễ bị nhiễm nấm Pythium spp nữa. Tuy nhiên, nấm Pythium spp. có thể gây bệnh thối rễ khi ớt được trồng trên lớp che phủ bằng nhựa.

“Úng nước” là thuật ngữ chung cho việc hạt mầm bị chết trong những điều kiện ẩm nước, hoặc trước hoặc sau khi nẩy mầm. Đó chủ yếu là vấn đề đầu vụ, gây tổn thất lớn nhất ở những ruộng đất ẩm. Bệnh này cũng là mối quan tâm lớn ở các nhà kính nếu đất trồng bị nhiễm bẩn hay được tưới nước quá nhiều.

Tuy việc nhiễm bệnh phổ biến nhất ở điều kiện thời tiết mát mẻ, nấm P. capcisi có thể nhiễm vào các cây mầm ở những chỗ có đất ấm hơn. Úng nước do nấm Pythium spp. có thể tăng lên ở nơi các loại phân xanh tự nhiên được bón thẳng vào đất ngay trước khi trồng. Bệnh úng nước không nhất thiết là truyền từ mùa này sang mùa khác ở cùng một nơi, nhưng chỉ xuất hiện khi và ở nơi có những điều kiện lý tưởng.

Nấm P. capcisi lẫn Pythium spp. đều không phải phát sinh từ hạt. Tuy nhiên, cả hai loại này đều có thể tồn tại trong đất trong những khoảng thời gian dài do có thành vỏ bào tử dày. Những cây giống nhiễm bẩn hoặc mầm bệnh từ đất là những nguồn lây nhiễm chính.

Việc tưới nước thường giúp các bào tử nấm làn truyền từ phần ruộng nhiễm bệnh sang những phần ruộng khác. Do đó, việc tưới nước có thể làm tăng đáng kể sự tác động và mức độ nghiêm trọng của bệnh thối rễ và vành lá ở cây ớt. Tăng tần suất và thời lượng tưới nước sẽ tạo điều kiện cho bệnh phát triển.

Nước, nhiệt độ và kết cấu đất trồng là những nhân tố chính ảnh hưởng đến sự phát triển của bệnh úng nước, thối rễ và vành lá. Sự hiện diện của nước là bắt buộc; đất bão hòa nước chỉ trong 5 đến 6 giờ là có thể dẫn đến nhiễm bệnh, và những giống ớt dễ thương tổn có thể bị bệnh nghiêm trọng chỉ trong 5 ngày. Nhiệt độ tối ưu để cây nhiễm bệnh là 24° đến 33°C.

Những triệu chứng thường xuất hiện tiếp sau thời tiết ấm, ẩm. Bệnh nặng hơn trong những vùng đất kết cấu mịn (đất sét) thoát nước chậm và đất có độ nén cao. Những ruộng nhiễm bệnh nặng có thể bị thiệt hại toàn bộ cây trồng.

Việc nhiễm bệnh xảy ra cuối vụ có thể làm giảm sức sống hay sản lượng của cây mà không làm cây bị chết. Ngoài ra, nếu lá ớt héo trong thời gian nóng nhất vào ban ngày và làm cho quả bị phơi nắng nhiều, những quả ớt như thế sẽ trở nên cháy nắng và do đó không thể thu hoạch để sử dụng được.

XỬ LÝ

Những nhân tố ảnh hưởng đến sự phát triển của các bệnh úng nước và thối rễ và ngọn ở cây ớt trong một vụ mùa nhất định bao gồm khả năng bị tổn thương của giống, số lượng và tần suất tưới tiêu, độ nén và khả năng thoát nước của đất.

Đảo vụ, tưới tiêu đúng cách, và các cây giống sạch đặc biệt quan trọng trong việc xử lý loại bệnh này. Những ruộng ớt có tiền sử bệnh thối rễ và ngọn có thể cần phun thuốc diệt nấm khi trồng.

Kiểm Soát Cây Trồng

Bệnh có thể được ngăn ngừa có hiệu quả bằng cách:

  • Sử dụng cây giống sạch bệnh

  • Chuẩn bị đất ruộng và đất ươm giống đúng cách

  • Quản lý tưới tiêu tốt

  • Áp dụng đảo vụ 2 năm để loại trừ những cây bị nhiễm nấm

Chuẩn bị đất trồng và làm luống

Có thể cải thiện việc kiểm soát bệnh bằng cách giảm bớt độ nén của đất, trồng cây trên nền cao. Nếu có thể, tránh trồng cây khi đất đang lạnh. Hạt giống sẽ nẩy mầm nhanh hơn và khỏe mạnh hơn khi đất ấm: do đó chúng sẽ ít khả năng bị tổn thương hơn.

Tưới tiêu

Sử dụng bình tưới khi ươm mầm để kiểm soát tốt việc tưới tiêu và giảm bớt nguy cơ nhiễm nấm. Trong khu vực đất dày tiêu nước kém, bệnh thối rễ và ngọn có thể được giảm xuống bằng cách tưới cách luống hoặc tưới nhỏ giọt cẩn thận.

Kháng bệnh

Những giống cây thương mại với mức độ kháng bệnh chấp nhận được đã có. Tuy nhiên, nhìn chung cây ớt rất dễ bị nhiễm các bệnh này.

Các Quyết Định Xử Lý

Các loại thuốc diệt nấm đôi khi được sử dụng để phòng ngừa trong những ruộng cây có tiền sử có bệnh thối rễ hoặc những vấn đề về tưới tiêu. Xử lý thuốc nấm cho hạt mầm để đề phòng úng nước.

Tên phổ thông

Lượng dùng mỗi hecta

R.E.I.+

P.H.I.+

(tên thương mại)

 

(giờ)

(ngày)


Khi chọn một loại thuốc sâu, hãy cân nhắc các thông tin liên quan đến chất lượng môi trường. Không phải tất cả các thuốc trừ sâu có đăng ký đều được nêu ra. Hãy luôn đọc kỹ nhãn của sản phẩm được sử dụng.

 

A.

MEFENOXAM

 

(Ridomil Gold SL)

1.250 ml (phun đất)

48

7

 

 

625 ml (phun lá)

48

7

 

TÊN (SỐ HIỆU1) NHÓM CÁCH XỬ LÝ: Phenylamide (4)

 

CHÚ THÍCH:

Phun khi trồng và phun 2 lần liên tiếp với cách khoảng 30 ngày. Không phun quá 1.800 ml/ha mỗi vụ (phun đất) hoặc 625 ml/ha mỗi vụ (phun lá). Tưới cơ học hoặc bằng bình tưới để di chuyển chất thuốc đến vùng rễ. Không sử dụng cho cây ớt trồng trong nhà kính.

B.

FLUOPICOLIDE

 

(Presidio)

220–300 ml

12

2

 

TÊN (SỐ HIỆU1) NHÓM CÁCH XỬ LÝ: Benzamide (43)

 

CHÚ THÍCH:

Việc Pha trộn trong thùng chứa với tỷ lệ theo nhãn của một sản phẩm diệt nấm khác nhãn có cách xử lý khác phải được áp dụng dụng để xử lý bền vững.

C.

PHOSPHOROUS ACID

 

(Nhiều loại sản phẩm)

Tỷ lệ theo nhãn

xem nhãn

xem nhãn

 

TÊN (SỐ HIỆU1) NHÓM CÁCH XỬ LÝ: Phosphonate (33)

 

CHÚ THÍCH:

Nghiên cứu về việc sử dụng chất này chưa được tiến hành, nhưng kinh nghiệm cho thấy nó có thể giúp kiểm soát bệnh bằng cách phòng. Cần phải phun nhiều lần để có sự kiểm soát tốt nhất.

 

Khoảng thời gian hạn chế vào (R.E.I.) là số giờ (trừ khi được ghi khác) từ khi phun thuốc cho đến khi có thể bước vào khu vực được phun mà không cần đồ bảo hộ.

Khoảng thời gian trước thu hoạch (P.H.I.) là số ngày từ khi phun thuốc đến khi được thu hoạch. Trong một số trường hợp REI vượt PHI. Trong hai chỉ số này, chỉ số nào dài hơn sẽ là thời gian tối thiểu phải bỏ qua trước khi thu hoạch.

Nguồn: sưu tầm.

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