KỸ THUẬT TRỒNG CHANH TỨ QUÝ – AGRICULTURE
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KỸ THUẬT TRỒNG CHANH TỨ QUÝ

Posted On March 8, 2017 at 8:24 pm by / 137 Comments

KỸ THUẬT TRỒNG CHANH TỨ QUÝ


Cây chanh tứ quý còn được gọi với tên khác là chanh tứ thời, chanh 4 mùa, là loại cây họ bưởi có nguồn gốc từ chang Lim Ca Châu Mỹ.

1. Thời vụ trồng:
Thời vụ trồng tốt nhất là vào mùa mưa để cây phát triển tốt và đỡ công tưới ban đầu
– Miền Bắc trồng vào 2 vụ chính vụ xuân và vụ thu.
– Miền Trung và miền Nam có thể trồng vào mùa xuân, cuối mùa khô, đầu mùa mưa.

2. Loại đất canh tác:
Chanh có thể trồng trên nhiều loại đất khác nhau, nhưng tốt nhất là đất thịt tơi xốp và nhiều mùn. Độ pH thích hợp từ 5 – 8, chanh không chịu úng nước và mặn do đó cần đào kênh hoặc lên luống cao để thoát nước.

3. Chuẩn bị đất trồng:
Hố được đào trước trồng 1-2 tháng, Kích thước hố trồng 0,6 x 0,6 x 0,6m với vùng đất thấp hố đào sâu 30-40cm, đất đồi đào sâu 60-80cm. Bón lót phân chuống vào hố trước : Phân chuồng hoai mục: 20-30 kg; phân lân 0,5 kg; kali 0,1kg; vôi bột 1 – 1,5 kg.Trộn đều lượng phân với đất, dùng cuốc phá thành hố sau đó rải vôi lên mặt hố và lấp đất mỏng. Tiếp đó bơm nước vào đầy hố, khoảng 10-15 ngày sau là trồng được.

4. Khoảng cách trồng:
Khi trồng thuần chanh thì cây cách cây  là 2,5 x2,5m, khi trồng xen  canh với các cây rau màu thường là 3,5m x 3-4m. Như vậy khi trồng thuần thì mật độ là 1.600 cây/ha. Trồng xen mật độ là 900 cây/ha. Nếu vùng đất thấp phải có đê bao khép kín, có hệ thống thủy lợi tưới tiêu hoàn chỉnh, đắp mô cao 0,5-0,6m, rộng 0,8-1m. Nếu vùng đất cao mặt đất bằng phẳng đắp mô cao 0,3-0,8m, rộng 0,8-1m.

5. Cách trồng:
Trồng bằng cây giống, đặt cây tùy số lượng nhánh nhiều cành bên hay ít mà đặt nhánh thẳng hay hơi nghiêng. Đặt nghiêng đối với cây chiết ít nhánh, giúp các đọt bên mọc lên để tạo tán. Sau khi trồng xong phải cắm cọc để buột thân cây cho gió khỏi lay làm đổ cây. Nếu là cây ghép xoay mắt ghép về hướng gió chính, lấp đất ngang cổ rễ hoặc cao hơn 1– 2 cm , tránh làm vỡ bầu hay lấp đất quá sâu. Năm đầu nên trồng xen đậu đỏ, lạc hay các loại rau khác.

6. Chăm sóc:
– Hạn chế ánh sáng: Trong thời gian đầu ta có thể trồng xen cây họ đậu vào trong vườn để hạn chế giông gió, đổ ngã và che bớt ánh sáng.
– Giữ ẩm: Đậy tủ gốc cho cây vào mùa khô, nhằm hạn chế chi phí tưới nước, trong vườn nên để cỏ cao 20-40cm để hạn chế nắng nóng vào mùa khô và chống xói mòn hay tăng cường thoát nước trong đất vào mùa mưa.
– Tưới nước: Cung cấp nước cho cây điều độ, muốn cây ra hoa, ngưng tưới cho khô gốc 20-30 ngày, sau đó tưới lại cây sẽ ra hoa.
– Tỉa cành tạo tán: Hạn chế cành vượt, loại bỏ những cành già cỗi sâu bệnh, giúp cây thông tháng, có dáng đẹp, tăng khả năng quang hợp và cây phát triển cân đối đủ sức mang trái.
– Bồi đất cho cây: Vào thời kỳ bón thúc cho cây nên cho thêm đất mới vào tán cây dầy 2-3cm cùng kết hợp việc bán phân hữu cơ hoai hay phân hóa học.

7. Qui trình bón phân:
– Bón phân thúc: Thay đổi tùy theo tính chất đất, năng suất…
* Bón 20-30 kg phân chuồng + 1- 2 kg tro/hốc/ năm (bón 1-2 lần/năm). Riêng phân hóa học được sử dụng bình quân như sau (cho mỗi cây):
* Năm thứ nhất: 0,5-1,0kg sulfat đạm (nếu dùng urê bón 0,25-0,5kg) + 0,3-0,5kg NPK (16-16-8)
* Năm thứ hai: 1,0-2,0kg sulfat đạm (nếu dùng urê bón 0,5-1,0kg) + 0,3-0,5kg NPK (16-16-8).
* Năm thứ ba trở đi: 2,0-2,4kg sulfat đạm (nếu dùng urê bón 1,0-1,2kg) + 0,5kg NPK (16-16-8) + 1 kg vôi. Do thu quả rải rác nên chia phân ra bón từ 4 – 5 lần/ năm.

8. Tạo quả trái vụ:
Có thể cho ra quả trái vụ bằng cách xiết nước. Ngưng tưới nước, tưới phân, hạn chế nguồn cung cấp dinh dưỡng cho cây khoảng 3 – 4 tuần, sau đó bón phân và tưới nước trở lại, cây sẽ cảm ứng và cho hoa quả sớm hơn thường lệ.

9. Chống hiện tượng cách niên:
Cần bón phân đầy đủ để tránh cây bị kiệt sức, vào những năm được mùa cần tăng thêm phân. Cần chủ động tỉa bớt quả, nhất là những cành phải nuôi nhiều quả; cắt bỏ những cành bên trong tán; tăng lượng phân ở thời kỳ sau thu hoạch.

10. Sâu bệnh hại và biện pháp phòng trừ:
Nhìn chung, các loại sâu bệnh trên cam, quýt, bưởi và chanh giống nhau. Riêng chanh cần chú ý hơn các đối tượng sau:
* Bệnh ghẻ: Do nấm Elsinoe fawcettii gây ra. Thường xuyên vệ sinh vườn cây, cắt tỉa và thu gom các bộ phận bị bệnh đem tiêu hủy. Phun ngừa khi cây ra đọt non hoặc khi hoa rụng cánh 2/3 bằng thuốc gốc đồng như Copper Zinc 85 WP, Coc 85 WP với liều lượng 20-30g/8 lít. Phun thuốc Benlate 50 WP, Derosal 60 WP, Polyram 80 DF, Kumulus 80 WP, Top plus 70 WP với nồng độ 0,2 – 0,5 %, phun 7-10 ngày/lần.
* Bệnh thán thư: Do nấm Colletotrichum gloeosporioides gây ra. Nấm làm hại lá, hoa và quả, làm rụng quả non. Cần cắt tỉa và tiêu hủy các lá, cành, trái bị bệnh, vệ sinh vườn, tỉa tán thoáng, tránh để vườn ẩm thấp. Không nên tưới nước lên tán cây khi cây bị bệnh. Phun thuốc khi thấy bệnh xuất hiện bằng các loại thuốc sau: Mancozeb 80 WP, Copper B 75 WP, Benomyl 50 WP, Antracol 70 WP, Bavistin 50 FL, Daconil 75 WP, Ridomil MZ 72 WP… liều lượng 15-30 g(cc)/8 lít, phun 7-10 ngày/lần, nên thay đổi thuốc sau vài lần phun để tránh sự quen thuốc của mầm bệnh.
* Bệnh thối gốc chảy nhựa: Do nấm Phytophthora spp. gây ra. Không nên tủ cỏ sát gốc vào mùa mưa. Dùng Copper Zinc 85 WP, Mancozeb 80 WP, Dithane M45 80 WP, Champion 77 WP pha đặc phết vào vết bệnh 7 ngày/lần. Hoặc để ngừa bệnh phết 2 lần/năm vào đầu và cuối mùa mưa. Phun thuốc khi bệnh gây hại cho cây Curzate M8 80 WP, Manzate 80 WP, Ridomil 72 WP, Metalaxyl 25 WP, Aliette 80 WP với liều lượng 20-30g/8 lít, phun 7-10 ngày/lần.
* Nhóm rệp sáp (rệp sáp, rệp bông, rệp dính): Nên sử dụng phối hợp thuốc hóa học (loại thuốc hóa học gốc lân hữu cơ tỏ ra có hiệu quả đối với rệp sáp khi không sử dụng liên tục một loại nhất định) với dầu khoáng (dầu khoáng DC-Tronc Plus, SK 99- Enpray ; có thể sử dụng ở liều lượng 0,5%) kết hợp diệt trừ kiến lửa.

11. Thu hoạch và bảo quản:
Khoảng 4 tháng sau khi hoa nở thì có thể thu hoạch được. Thu khi quả có vỏ căng, bóng. Thu hái nhẹ nhàng, tránh rụng lá gãy cành.
Sau khi thu hoạch để chanh ở khu vực thoáng mát, cách mặt sàn 10-15cm. Có thể dùng các loại hóa chất bảo quản để chanh được tươi lâu.

Nguồn: Sưu tầm.

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