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KỸ THUẬT TRỒNG MĂNG CỤT SAI QUẢ

Posted On March 8, 2017 at 3:04 pm by / 358 Comments

KỸ THUẬT TRỒNG MĂNG CỤT SAI QUẢ


Trái măng cụt có giá trị kinh tế cao và có thị trường xuất khẩu rất lớn. Ở Việt Nam, trái măng cụt có giá trị dinh dưỡng cao nên được nhiều người ưa thích. Vì vậy, bà con nên nắm vững kỹ thuật trồng cây măng cụt cho năng suất cao nhất.

Măng cụt thuộc cây ăn quả nhiệt đới được trồng nhiều ở Thái Lan, Mã lai, Phi luật tân, Indonesia và Việt nam. Măng cụt là loại trái cây được nhiều người ưa chuộng và dược xem như là nữ hoàng của cây ăn trái nhiệt đới bởi lẽ dáng trái đẹp và chứa nhiều chất bổ dưỡng. Dưới đây là những kỹ thuật trồng cây măng cụt đúng cách nhất cho năng suất vượt trội.
  
Giống và kỹ thuật nhân giống:
Măng cụt có thể được nhân giống bằng cách ghép đọt hoặc gieo hạt.
Phương pháp ghép không đạt hiệu quả cao do cây con có tỉ lệ hao hụt rất lớn; cây ghép cho trái nhỏ và ít hơn so với cây trồng bằng hạt.
Gieo hạt là phương pháp nhân giống phổ biến của măng cụt. Măng cụt đậu trái không thụ phấn, hạt măng cụt được phát triển từ phôi cái nên cây trồng từ hạt có đặc tính giống như cây mẹ.
Cách gieo hạt:
Hạt măng cụt mau mất sức nẩy mầm, do đó không nên dự trữ hạt lâu. Chọn hạt to, nặng > 1g từ những trái mặng cụt chín. Rửa sạch hạt va gieo vào bầu đất hoặc liếp ươm.
Vật liệu của bầu hoặc liếp ươm là tro trấu, bột sơ Dừa hoặc cát mịn trộn phân hữu cơ. Thường xuyên tưới nước giữ ẩm, 20-30 ngày sau hạt sẽ nẩy mầm. Khi cây lớn thì chuyển sang bầu lớn chú ý không làm tổn thương rễ vì rễ măng cụt không có lông hút và rất yếu.
Mật độ khoảng cách:
Măng cụt có tán cây lớn, tán là sum xuê, do đó nên trồng thưa cây cách nhau 7-10m. Mật độ 100-200 cây/ha, với khoảng cách trồng nầy cây sẽ giao tán sau 30 năm trồng.

Chuẩn bị mô:

Mô cần được chuẩn bị 1-2 tháng trước khi trồng. Mô hình tròn có đường kính 0,6 –0,8m, cao 0,3-0,5m tùy theo địa hình cao hay thấp. Đất mô nên trộn với 10-20 kg phân chuồng Hoai và 200g phân NPK 15-15-15.
Kỹ thuật trồng:
Khi cây con được 2 năm tuổi thì đem đi trồng, lúc này cây có 12-13 cặp lá và 1 cành cấp 1, khoét lỗ trên mô vừa với bầu đất, nhẹ nhàng đặt cây vào, lấp đất Ngang mặt bầu, cắm cọc giữa cây không bị đổ ngã. Khi đặt cây cần cẩn thận để không bị hư rễ.
Làm cỏ, trồng xen:
Có thể dùng một số cây ngắn ngày làm cây trồng xen trong vườn cây măng cụt để góp phần hạn chế cỏ dại phát triển. Việc trồng xen cần bảo đảm cây trồng xen không cạnh tranh nước và dinh dưỡng với cây măng cụt.
Trong những năm đầu khi cây chưa khép tán, cỏ dại sẽ phát triển mạnh, nên diệt cỏ bằng phương pháp thủ công, hoặc dùng máy cắt cỏ, khi cần thiết có thể diệt cỏ bằng thuốc hoá học như: Glyphosate, Gramoxone,…
Tưới nước:
Măng cụt là cây có nhu cầu nước rất lớn, nhất là giai đoạn cây con và cây đang mang trái vì sau khi trổ (tháng 12 dương lịch) là thời kỳ không mưa. Do đó, cần phải tưới nước cách ngày cho cây nhất là ở giai đoạn sau khi trổ hoa, trái.
Thu hoạch
Hái trái lúc trái có màu hồng, khi hái phải thật cẩn thận và tránh sự va chạm mạnh trên trái nhằm giảm đến mức thấp nhất sự xây xát. Nên dùng dụng cụ có túi vải để hái trái, tránh để trái rơi tự do trên mặt đất làm xay xát vỏ trái…

Theo (Theo VietQ)

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