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Posted On April 1, 2017 at 1:01 am by / 1,841 Comments

          Hồ tiêu là loại cây thân thảo, rất mẫn cảm với chế độ chăm sóc và sâu bệnh gây hại. Việc lựa chọn được sản  phẩm phân bón, thuốc BVTV thích hợp và hiệu quả cho cây tiêu là một thách thức lớn đối với bà con nông dân. Để cây tiêu phát triển bền vững, cho năng suất cao và ổn định chúng ta cần áp dụng một số biện pháp chăm sóc như sau:

            Về phân bón:

            – Cần kết hợp hài hòa giữu phân Hữu cơ vi sinh  và  phân hóa học. (Đặc biệt nên chọn các loại phân vi sinh có đầy đủ các loại vi sinh vật có ích và nấm đối kháng Trichoderma như Phân Trichomix – DT cây công nghiệp,  Phân Trichomix – DT Tiêu (vàng), Phân Trichomix – DT Tiêu (trắng) 1, Phân Trichomix – DT Tiêu (trắng) 2, Phân Đầu Trâu HCMK 7 – Hữu cơ vi sinh.

            Lượng phân bón cho một trụ tiêu / năm  như sau:

            – Vôi bột: 0,5 -1kg (chia từ 1-2 lần bón và bón trước khi bón phân 5-7 ngày)

            – Phân hữu cơ vi sinh: 3 – 6 kg Trichomix (Chia thành 3-6 lần bón).

            – Phân Vô cơ:

            + Kích ra hoa đầu mùa mưa: 0,3 – 0,5kg NPK 19-13-8 TE hoặc NPK  20-20-15 + TE hoặc NPK 20-20-15+TE. Chia làm 2 lần bón cách nhau 15 ngày.

            + Nuôi trái: Sau khia trái hình thành: 0,4 – 0,6kg  NPK 15-7-17+ TE hoặc NPK 17 -7-21 + TE hoặc NPK 12-11-18 +TE.  Chia thành  2-4  lần bón.

              + Cuối mùa mưa: Nên bón bổ sung 0,2kg Kali/trụ.

            -Phân trung vi lượng: Vino 79 50 – 100 lít/ha/năm.

          * Mùa nắng:  Bón  1 – 2kg phân HCVS TrichomixLân Canxi-Manhe 0,5- 1kg/gốc và tưới đủ ẩm nhằm cung cấp dinh dưỡng,  tăng khả năng chống hạn cho cây tiêu vào mùa khô, tạo tiền  đề cho cây tiêu hoàn thiện bộ khung tán và ra hoa sớm vào năm sau.

            Về phòng trừ sâu bênh hại chính:

            Thời gian qua, nhiều bà con nông dân rất tốn kém trong việc phòng trừ sâu bệnh hại cho cây tiêu và đã sử dụng rất nhiều loại thuốc, tuy nhiên hiệu quả mang lại không hề như mong muốn.

Từ thực trạng đó,  qua quá trình nghiên cứu và khảo nghiệm trên đông ruộng và qua kết qua của bà con nông dân chúng tôi đã đúc rút ra một số vấn đề sau:

  1. Phòng trừ rệp sáp và tuyến trùng:

* Phòng: Dùng Tricho-Nema hoặc Chitosan Supper đổ  gốc định kỳ luân phiên 2-3 lần trong mùa mưa:

* Trị: (Khi phát hiện có rệp sáp hoặc tuyến trùng tấn công): Dùng hỗn hợp thuốc Chitosan Super + Daiphat đổ gốc (3-5 lít/gốc) và xịt thuốc trừ rệp trên thân.  Sau 15 đến 20 ngày dùng Tricho – Nema + Nutrisuper Humat đổ lại toàn bộ vườn nhằm kích thích hệ rễ mới phát triển và tạo hệ sinh vật có lợi bảo vệ hệ rể cây tiêu.

  1. Phòng, trị bệnh chết nhanh, chết chậm:

            Sau khi thu hoạch dùng đồng Chelat hoặc Nano Đồng để xịt cho cây tiêu

– Vào mùa mưa dùng men Trichodermar (Trichomix đậm đặc)  để phun xịt lên cây, mặt đất và tưới xung quanh gốc tiêu (Định kỳ 3-4 lần/năm).

            – Khi phát hiện có khoảng 5% cây có biểu hiện bệnh trên lá thì phải dùng thuốc Alfamil hoặc Jiamamo xịt lên lá và đổ gốc bằng  thuốc Vaba supper (có thể pha thêm Iprocyman hoặc Agriphos- 400  hoặc Alfamil để tăng hiệu lực phòng trị).

            Chú ý: Cần đào rãnh thoát nước cách khoảng 3-4 hàng tiêu; và hệ thống chống nước chảy tràn trên vườn.

            Ngoài ra phải thường xuyên thăm vườn để phát hiện sớm các triệu chứng bất thường biểu hiện trên cây tiêu nhằm có biện pháp phòng trừ kịp thời.

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