SỬ DỤNG BÓN PHÂN ĐẦU TRÂU KHI XỬ LÝ RA HOA SỚM CHO CÂY XOÀI Ở ĐỒNG NAI – AGRICULTURE
SỬ DỤNG BÓN PHÂN ĐẦU TRÂU KHI XỬ LÝ RA HOA SỚM CHO CÂY XOÀI Ở ĐỒNG NAI
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SỬ DỤNG BÓN PHÂN ĐẦU TRÂU KHI XỬ LÝ RA HOA SỚM CHO CÂY XOÀI Ở ĐỒNG NAI

Posted On April 1, 2017 at 5:31 am by / 1,999 Comments

     SỬ DỤNG BÓN PHÂN ĐẦU TRÂU KHI XỬ LÝ RA HOA SỚM CHO CÂY XOÀI 


Ở Đồng Nai có khoảng 9000 ha cây xoài, một diện tích không nhỏ so với cả nước. Để cho năng suất, chất lượng tốt, bán giá cao, nông dân sản xuất có lãi nhiều, đây là điều mà người làm vườn nào cũng đặt lên hàng đầu. Hàng năm ở tỉnh Đồng nai có trên dưới 40 ha xoài xử lý ra hoa trái vụ cho hiệu quả kinh tế cao, thường đạt trên dưới 100 triệu /ha/ vụ.

Các nhà vườn muốn đạt hiệu quả kinh tế cao thì cần các yếu tố sau:

– Tình trạng dự trữ dinh dưỡng của cây:
Cây không được bón phân  hay  ít phân, không tỉa cành,chăm sóc sau thu hoạch thì khả năng ra hoa vụ sau sẽ kém. Trong những năm thời tiết thuận lợi:
Cây có thể ra hoa trên đỉnh ngọn khi lá có độ tuổi thuần thục rất ngắn (1 tháng) nhưng bình thường phải từ 2,5 – 3 tháng thì khả năng ra hoa mới cao.
– Ẩm độ:
Cây phải trải qua một thời gian khô hạn là một trong những điều kiện thuận lợi cho việc ra hoa.
– Sự cân bằng dinh dưỡng:
Cây được bón quá nhiều Đạm sẽ phát triển nhiều cành lá, khó ra hoa và trễ vụ, cần bón NPK cần đối từng giai đoạn.

Bước I :
Sau thu hoạch tiến hành cắt tỉa cành trong tàn, cành khô, những cành (chồi) đã cho trái. Tiến hành bón phân 10 – 20 kg phân hữu cơ vi sinh ĐẦU TRÂU HC MK 7 +  phân bón ĐẦU TRÂU ĐA NĂNG( NPK 17 – 12 – 7 +TE)  2 – 3 kg /gốc, cây 7-15 năm tuổi trở lên.

Tuới nước đủ ẩm (nếukhôngmưa). Sau khoảng 10 ngày xoài ra đọt. Giai đoạn này cây ra lá non cần dùng thuốc ĐẦU TRÂU  BIHOPPER 270 EC hoặc IMCHLORAD  350 EC để phòng trừ sâu ăn lá + phân bón lá ĐẦU TRÂU  MK  30 – 10 – 5.

Khi đợt ra lá( cơi lá)1 thuần thục, bón phân lần 2 bằng ĐẦU TRÂU ĐA NĂNG bón 2-3 kg/gốc. Đợt cơi lá 2 mới nhú (5 cm) đến khi lá có màu Đồng, chú ý bảovệ lá non, 7 ngày xịt thuốc sâu/lần (thuốc trừ sâu sinh học ĐẦU TRÂU BIHOPPER 270 EC) và thuốc trị bệnh thán thư ( CARMANTHAI 80 WP).
Giai đoạn xử lý:
Nếu để tự nhiên, nhiệt độ tối thấp các tháng 12 – tháng 1 đạt đến 19-21oC thì xoài cát Hoà lộc ra hoa bình thường. Ra hoa lúc này ,sẽ có quả thu tháng 4-5 năm sau, lúc này xoài rộ nên bán giá không cao.

Bước II : Muốn cho xoài ra hoa sớm, trước tháng 5-6 DL (nghịchvụ) thì thu hoạch chăm sóc tỉa cành, bón phân đầy đủ liền. Đến tháng 9 DL dùng Paclobutrazol (PBZ) để xử lý kích thích ra hoa.

– Khi cơi lá 2, giai đoạn lá lụa đạt 15-20 ngày tuổi(lá có màu hồng nhạt),dùng Paclobutrazol (PBZ)  để tạomầm hoa,  với nồng độ 1-2 g hoạt chất /1m đường kính tán lá để tưới vào gốc hoặc dùng 80g PBZ/ cây đường kính tán 5-6m ,hoà 5-6 lít nước tưới gốc).
– Sau xử lý 3 tháng,từ tháng 6-9, phun Thioure có nồng độ 0,3-0,5% để kích thích ra hoa (phá miên trạng), phun ướt đẫm tàn lá, một tuần sau xử lý lại với nồng độ PBZ giảm đi còn 50% .
Chú ý: Tưới dung dịch trên sát phần gốc của thân cây và giữ ẩm khoảng 3 tuần để thuốc ngấm vào bộ rễ.

Bước III: Xử lý ra hoa đến thu hoạch trái
Sau xử lý 1-1,5 tháng, khi chồi non chuyển sang màu xanh sậm bắt đầu xử lý ra hoa :

– Lần 1: Xịt 2 lần bằng phân bón lá ĐẦU TRÂU MK 5 – 45 – 10, mỗi lần cách nhau 7-10 ngày. Dùng thuốc CARMANTHAI 80 WP để phòng trừ bệnh Thán thư, dùng thuốc Đầu Trâu BIHOPPER 270EC để phòng trừ sâu ăn lá.

– Lần 2: Khi phát hoa dài 10-15 cm (Giai đoạn dưỡng bông, cần lưu ý phòng ngừa sâu rầy) dùng IMCHLORAD 350 EC + Phân bón lá  ĐẦU TRÂU MK 5 – 45 – 10 để xịt.

– Lần 3: Bông xoài trên 20 cm và chuẩn bị nở hoa, xịt Phân bón lá ĐẦU TRÂU MK 5 – 45 – 10 (nếu bông không được mập mạp có thể phun thêm một lần nữa phân bón lá như trên) , khi phát hoa dài 20-25 cm ( cũng là giai đoạn dưỡng bông, phòng ngừa sâu rầy) dùng IMCHLORAD 350 EC và CARMANTHAI 80 WP phòng trừ rệp và bệnh.

– Lần 4: Từ khi nở hoa đến khi đường kính trái 0,5-1,0 cm. Khi tượng trái sử dụng phân bón ĐẦU TRÂU LỚN TRÁI( NPK 12 – 7 – 17 + TE). Đây là giai đoạn hết sức mẫn cảm với thời tiết, sâu, bệnh … Giai đoạn này sử dụng CARMANTHAI 80 WP xịt trừ bệnh thán thư, nấm bệnh khác và sử dụng  IMCHLORAD 350 EC để trừ rầy, định kỳ  7- 10 ngày/  lần.

Giai đoạn hoa nở, nếu mưa liên tục 2-3 ngày phải phun thuốc ngừa bệnh thán thư
Giai đoạn này dùng phân bón lá ĐẦU TRÂU MK 15 – 5 – 40 là chủyếu, mỗi lần cách nhau khoảng 10 ngày, giai đoạn này cần giữ đủ độ ẩm đất để hạn chế chống rụng trái.
Nếu năm sau xử lý tiếp nghịch vụ thì nồng độ PBZ phải giảm đi 50%, năm thứ 3 phải ngưng xử lý để cây phục hồi.
Lưu ý: PBZ chỉ là chất tạo mầm hoa, nên nếu không có Thioure  thì  mầm hoa vẫn nằm ở trạng thái ngủ chờ đếntháng 12 hoặctháng 1 năm sau mới ra hoa. Có thể dùng  ĐẦU TRÂU KNO3 với nồng độ 2% phun thay thế Thioure, nhưng hiệu quả không cao bằng Thioure.

Nguồn: Công ty Cổ phần Bình Điền – MeKong
Cộng tác viên Trần Nguyên Quán

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