BỆNH ĐỐM LÁ TO – TURCICUM LEAF BLIGHT – AGRICULTURE
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Bệnh Đốm Lá To - Turcicum Leaf Blight

BỆNH ĐỐM LÁ TO – TURCICUM LEAF BLIGHT

Posted On May 10, 2017 at 4:31 pm by / 836 Comments

Tác nhân:

Bệnh  do  nấm  Helminthosporium turcicum Passerini, giai đoạn hoàn toàn là !ITrichometasphaeria turcia!i Luttrell, thuộc lớp Nấm Nang.

Triệu chứng:

Trên lá có đốm bệnh hình thuyền, màu vàng nâu hoặc xám, kích thước: 1-15 x 1 cm, thường xuất hiện ở các lá dưới rồi lan dần lên các lá trên. Các đốm có thể liên kết lại làm cả lá bị cháy.
Qua phân tích, cho thấy bệnh càng nặng khi nồng độ ion Ca và Zn cao trong lá bi và nồng độ ion K thấp. Ở giống kháng bệnh, đốm bệnh nhỏ hơn, có màu xám trắng với viền màu vàng nhạt. Mô tế bào nơi đốm bệnh của giống kháng, thường chết nhanh, làm mầm bệnh không phát triển được. Phản ứng nầy thường thấy ở bắp Răng ngựa, bắp ngọt.
Bệnh thường xảy ra vào giai đoạn bắp trổ cờ trỡ về sau. Tuy nhiên, bệnh cũng có thể làm chết cây con hoặc làm cây bị lùn khi mầm bệnh hiện diện liên tục trong ruộng bắp. Sau khi bắp phun râu được 4 tuần, nếu chỉ có dưới 30% diện tích lá bị bệnh và bệnh chỉ  ở các lá dưới, thì năng suất sẽ không bị thiệt hại đáng kể. Cây bị bệnh nầy thường bị phụ nhiểm bệnh Thối thân và Thối rể.

Bệnh  còn  tấn  công  trên  cây  lúa  miến  và  nhiều  loại  cỏ:  johnsongrass,  sudangrass, gamagrass.

Phòng trừ:

– Vệ sinh đồng ruộng, không bón quá nhiều đạm, cần bón thêm kali.

– Luân canh với chu kỳ hai năm. Chọn trồng giống kháng bệnh, các giống kháng bệnh nầy có nguồn gốc từ các vùng Colombia, Caribê, Peru,Venezuella. Chọn giống dài ngày vì nó ít nhiểm bệnh hơn giống ngắn ngày.

– Khi cây cao khoảng 0,5m, nên phun thuốc ngừa bệnh. Các thuốc có chứa maneb hoặc chlorothalonil hoặc propiconazol đều có hiệu quả trong việc phòng trị bệnh nầy, như: Dithane M-45 (80% mancozeb), Manzate 200 (80% maneb), Tilt (41,8% propiconazole), phun định kỳ 5-7 ngày/lần.

Biện pháp hóa học: Phun thuốc khi bệnh mới xuất hiện.

Catcat 250 EC 15 ml/16 lít nước
Carbenda Supper 50 SC 20-25 ml/16 lít nước
Manozeb 80 WP, Ridozeb 72WP 60-80 g/16 lít nước
Aviso 350SC 14 ml/16 lit nước

Ngoại cảnh:

Điều kiện phát sinh phát triển bệnh là: trời mát  và ẩm, buổi sáng có sương mù, cây vào giai đoạn trổ cờ và nhất là ở các vùng có vĩ độ cao.

Chu trình:

Đính bào tử có màu nâu vàng sậm, dạng hình thoi hoặc hình con suốt (spindle-shaped), hơi cong, gồm nhiều tế bào với 1-9 vách ngăn, kích thước: 30-150 x 12-28 micron. Chúng được sinh ra trên các đính bào đài phát triển thành chùm. Đính bào đài có màu nâu ô-liu, kích thước: 7-9 x 150-250 micron. Đính bào tử có thể sống đến 12 năm ở O độ C và ẩm độ thấp (49-58%). Ở 25 độ C và ẩm độ là 49%, đính bào tử chỉ sống dưới 6 tháng. Giai đoạn hoàn toàn (sinh sản hữu tính), !IT. turcica!i, hiếm khi xảy ra trong thiên nhiên; các giả bao nang (pseudothecia) được thấy trong môi trường nuôi cấy, có dạng hình cầu, kích thước: 13-17 x 42-78 micron, chứa nhiều nang bào tử (ascospores); mỗi nang bào  tử gồm 4 tế bào.
Tính biến động của mầm bệnh hiện diện  trong ba dòng nấm gây hại trên cây bắp; các dòng khác thì gây hại trên các cây khác.

Nấm bệnh  lưu  tồn  trong xác cây bệnh và  trong đất, dưới dạng đính bào tử và bì bào tử (chlamydospoes). Mầm bệnh không được lan truyền từ hạt giống.

Nấm bệnh xâm nhập vào lá, sáu ngày sau, mô tế bào bị nhiểm bệnh sẽ héo khô. trong điều kiện ẩm ướt hoặc sau cơn mưa, nấm  bệnh tạo bào tử ở hai mặt của vết bệnh, làm cho bệnh lây lan lên các lá bên trên. Vào năm 1935, có một báo cáo cho rằng hạt có thể bị nhiểm bệnh do nấm !IHelminthosporium!i sp.. Như vậy, loài nấm nầy có thể là một trong các loài có khả năng gây hại trên hạt đã được biết là: H. maydis, H. carbonum, H. rostratum, chớ không chắc là loài H. turcicum. Và các báo cáo khác cũng cho thấy loài H. turcicum không gây bệnh cho hạt.

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