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BỆNH HÉO TƯƠI HẠI CÂY NGÔ

Posted On May 13, 2017 at 1:15 pm by / 117 Comments

Tác nhân gây bệnh:

Bệnh do vi khuẩn Xanthomonas stewartii (E.F. Smith) Dowson (Bacterium stewartii  E.F. Smith,  Erwinia stewartii,  Pseudomonas stewartii,  Aplanobacter stewartii, Phytpmonas stewartii). Vi khuẩn tấn công vào hạt hoặc có sẵn trong hạt (hiện diện trong nội phôi nhũ, không có ở lớp vỏ hạt), rồi xâm nhập vào cây con, theo  mạch nhựa lên thân và lá, làm nghẹt mạch dẫn truyền. Vi khuẩn cũng có thể xâm nhập vào cây qua vết thương hoặc qua khẩu.
Côn trùng cũng là tác nhân mang truyền bệnh từ cây bệnh sang cây mạnh, loài bọ cánh cứng [flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria, thuộc họ Chrysomelidae, họ phụ Alticinae (Halticinae)] được xem như là nguồn lan truyền bệnh quan trọng nhất trong nhóm côn trùng truyền bệnh . Vi khuẩn không truyền qua đất.
Vi khuẩn nầy không mang đặc  tính  tiêu biểu của giống Xanthomonas, vì nó không cử động và có sắc tố vàng khác với những  loài khác đã được thử nghiệm trước đó. Tuy nhiên, loài vi khuẩn  nầy có các đặc tính sinh hóa tương hợp với các loài thuộc giống Xanthomonas. Do đó, Dowson vẫn giữ nó lại trong giống vi khuẩn nầy, và nó được xem như là một trường hợp điển hình về tính bất động ngẩu nhiên của giống vi khuẩn nầy. 

Triệu chứng:

Cây bệnh thường héo và chết sớm, các lá dưới có những sọc dài màu xanh nhạt đến vàng rồi nâu, sọc có dạng bất thường chạy dọc theo phiến và lan dần vào trong thân, cả lá có thể bị khô rồi chết. Những cây còn sống sót thì thường bị lùn. Cắt ngang thân, thấy mô dẫn truyền có màu nâu chocolate và tiết ra từng giọt dịch vi khuẩn màu vàng và nhớt . Phát hoa đực phát triển sớm, tàn úa và có màu trắng.

Đặc điểm nhận biết:

Trên lá có những vết sọc màu vàng nhạt, khi vết bệnh phát triển lan dần vào thân làm cho cây bị thấp lùn, phát triển kém, héo nhanh và chết. Cắt ngang thân cây ngô bị bệnh, từ các bó mạch tiết ra các giọt dịch màu vàng chứa đầy vi khuẩn.

Phòng trừ:

– Dùng giống bắp lai có dặc tính kháng bệnh, như Golden Harvest. Tính di tuyền và cơ nguyên của tính kháng bệnh đã được nghiên cứu rộng rải. Tính kháng bệnh mang tính trội và do một vài gen điều khiển. Trồng giống muộn sẽ ít bị nhiểm bệnh hơn giống sớm. Các nhóm bắp ngọt, bắp đá, bắp răng ngựa, đều dễ bị nhiểm bệnh. Chọn giống từ ruộng không bệnh.
– Dự báo bệnh bằng cách theo dõi sự lưu tồn của bọ cánh cứng.
– Khử hạt bằng các cách:

* Trộn hạt khô với thuốc khử hạt, như Arasan 0,2%, vào 7-10 ngày trước khi
gieo.
* Ngâm hạt qua đêm trong dung dịch thuốc kháng sinh Streptomycine 100 ppm     hoặc Terramycine.
* Ngâm hạt ngay trước khi gieo trong HgCl2 0,1% trong 20  phút hoặc ngâm với    nước nóng 45 độ C trong 15 phút.
– Phòng trị côn trùng lan truyền bệnh. Tránh gây vết thương cho  cây.

– Phun chất kháng sinh trừ vi khuẩn: 2S Sea & Sec 12WP; 12DD; hòa tiếp 50SP Sat 4SL. Có thể dùng các loại thuốc: Kasumil; TP – Zep 18EC.

Ngoại cảnh:

Bệnh phát triển mạnh khi có mưa nhiều, nhiệt độ và ẩm độ cao.

Điều kiện thích hợp cho vi khuẩn sinh trưởng là nhiệt độ 30oC, pH 6-8. Bệnh lây lan qua hạt giống, tàn dư cây bệnh trong đất và đặc biệt là côn trùng môi giới Chaetocnema pulicaria (cánh cứng đục lá).

Tư vấn kĩ thuật: 0933.067.033

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