KỸ THUẬT GIÂM CÀNH CÂY MAI VÀNG – AGRICULTURE
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KỸ THUẬT GIÂM CÀNH CÂY MAI VÀNG

Posted On September 3, 2016 at 2:02 pm by / 115 Comments

Chuẩn bị

Để giâm cành Mai thành công thì các bạn nên

1. Chọn cành mạnh khỏe, không có nấm bịnh.

2. Cành chưa trổ hoa. Cây sẽ dồn rất nhiều dinh dưỡng để nuôi hoa cho nên sau khi hoa tàn cây rất yếu, khi đó bạn cắt cành giâm thì tỉ lệ sống rất thấp.

3. Yếu tố quyết định là ĐỘ ẨM, đa số thất bại là khi thấy cây đã ra chồi thì cho rằng đã thành công nên không phun ẩm cho cây nữa mà đưa ra nắng ngay khiến cây bị cháy lá.

4. Lúc cây ra chồi mạnh nên dùng kích thích rễ đều đặn…..

5. Nên giâm cành đầu mùa mưa, khi lá đã già. Mùa mưa để đỡ phải tưới giữ ẩm, còn lá già là khi cây sung mãn nhất. Miền Bắc thì chưa thấy ai chơi nên không cần quan tâm tới mùa.

Chất trồng

Nên dùng tro trấu, trấu sống và mụn dừa mỗi thứ 1 phần để trồng. Mụn dừa giữ nước nhiều nên mùa mưa sẽ bớt đi 1 nửa số mụn dừa. Nếu dùng cát hạt to để giâm thì sẽ mau ra rễ, tuy nhiên sau khi ra rễ thì lại thiếu chất mùn cho cây phát triển.

Cách giâm

Cách 1: Bạn cưa 1 đoạn cành Mai muốn giâm (đừng dài quá 3 tấc), sau đó nhúng vào nước, dùng bọc nylon cuộn sát vào cành muốn giâm. Bạn đừng buộc dây vì sau này khó lấy bọc nylon ra, chôn cành ngập 1/3 trong chậu sao cho mép nilong ở trong đất (tránh mất nước), để ờ nơi có nắng nhẹ.

Khi đoạn giâm ra chồi và chạm vào bọc thì sẽ bị đen ở mép lá, lúc này ta sẽ nhẹ nhàng xé bọc ra. Đừng tháo hẳn bọc mà trước tiên xé ra cho không khí tràn vào, sau vài ngày mới tháo hẳn bọc. Lúc này là lúc phải dùng đến thuốc kích rễ (phải tuân theo hướng dẫn của nhà sản xuất) và cần phun nước ngày nhiều lần.
cây mai giâm bằng cành hiện đã nảy mầm
Khi tược của cành giâm đã ngả sang màu nâu đậm, lá đã dày và xanh đậm thì bộ rễ của cành giâm đã ổn. Khi đó ta có thể chuyển riêng từng cây sang chậu mới.
cây mai giâm bằng cành hiện đã phát triển ổn định

Cách giâm này có thể đạt tỷ lệ thành công 70% đối với cành lớn và khoảng 90% đối với cành nhỏ cỡ ngón tay.

Cách 2: Bạn cắt hàng loạt cành muốn giâm, đặt nghiêng vào chậu, sau đó rải chất trồng lên trên cho kín, tưới nước; trong quá trình tưới thì đầu các đoạn giâm sẽ ló ra, nếu đầu cành giâm ló ra nhiều thì phải rải thêm,chỉ cho đầu cành ló ra độ 1cm (tránh mất nước),khi chồi đã ra thì phun ngay thuốc kích thích rễ, nếu có biểu hiện của bọ trĩ, sâu, nấm thì phải dùng thuốc bảo vệ.
giâm cành mai vàng không dùng bọc nilong
Kiểu giâm này có ưu điểm là lá làm quen với môi trường ngay từ đầu nên sau này không bị cháy quăn lá khi bỏ bao nilong như cách 1. Lưu ý rằng ta nên đặt nghiêng cành giâm để sau này dễ tách rời bộ rễ của từng cây ra hơn. Cũng như cách 1, khi lá chuyển màu xanh đậm thì ta có thể tách ra từng chậu riêng biệt.

Lưu ý:

1. Không bôi chất chống thấm nước (keo liền sẹo, keo con voi, nến v.v )vào phần mặt cắt chôn dưới đất. Bởi khi không có rễ thì đó là phần cây hút nước lên để nảy mầm. Nhiều bạn cẩn thận sợ cây bị vi khuẩn xâm nhập (trong đó có mình cũng đã từng thử ^^) nên bôi keo kín mít, kết quả là cây không hút được nước lên và khô dần. Cây chống lại mầm bệnh thế nào kệ nó, nếu bạn bôi keo thì cây chắc chắn chết.

2. Nên bón phân có hàm lượng Lân cao khi chồi đã dài khoảng 1 gang tay.

3. Có một số bạn thắc mắc về tuổi thọ của cành giâm. Câu trả lời là cây cối không “già đều” như động vật chúng ta. Ở trên cây phần nào già cứ già còn phần nào mới sinh thì vẫn trẻ, cho nên nếu liên tục cắt tỉa & chăm sóc đúng cách thì tuổi thọ của cây không khác gì cây trồng từ hạt.

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