SÂU BỆNH HẠI CÂY HOA ĐÀO – AGRICULTURE
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SÂU BỆNH HẠI CÂY HOA ĐÀO

Posted On September 5, 2016 at 1:19 pm by / 126 Comments

Bệnh chảy nhựa:

Bệnh gây hại chủ yếu trên thân cành, nhất là chỗ phân nhánh. Khi bệnh, vỏ cây nứt ra, nhựa vàng trong suốt chảy ra, lâu dần sẽ chuyển thành màu nâu đỏ, chỗ bị bệnh lồi lên, tần vỏ và gỗ bị mục. Lá cành bệnh bị vàng, bệnh nặng có thể làm cây chết khô.

Nguyên nhân gây bệnh:

Bệnh chảy nhựa đào không truyền nhiễm. Nguyên nhân gây bệnh khá phức tạp, có thể là do sương muối, sâu hại, đất chặt, trời rét. Một số loài sâu đục thân như xén tóc, cát đinh, nấm bệnh có thể gây ra hiện tượng chảy nhựa. Trong lớp vỏ cây sẽ xuất hiện các vết nứt, tinh bột bị dịch hóa và nhựa chảy ra không ngừng làm cây yếu. Bệnh thường xảy ra vào mùa sinh trưởng (mùa xuân+hè).
cây đào bị chảy nhựa

Biện pháp phòng trừ:

Không trồng đào nơi đất quá chặt. Nếu bắt buộc trồng trên đất thịt cần bón phân hữu cơ.
Quét vôi gốc cây đề phòng sâu hại. Khi trời sương muối và nắng cháy cần có biện pháp che chắn cho cây.

Đối với cây bị bệnh, quét hợp chất lưu huỳnh + vôi 5oBe sau đó quét luyn lên vết thương.

Bệnh xoăn lá đào:

Đây là bệnh rất phổ biến, ảnh hưởng tới sự ra hoa của đào. Ban đầu lá dầy lên, màu xanh xám. Phần bệnh bị xoăn, màu đỏ hoặc đỏ tím, trên mặt lá xuất hiện bột màu trắng xám. Về sau lá thành màu nâu và rụng.
bệnh xoăn lá đào

Nguyên nhân gây bệnh:

Bệnh do nấm túi ngoài (Taphrina deformans Berk. Tul.) thuộc bộ túi ngoài lớp nấm túi nửa gây ra.

Tầng bột màu trắng phủ lên mặt lá là tầng túi. Nhiệt độ thích hợp để nấm bệnh phát triển là 20oC. Nấm bệnh qua đông trên vỏ cây, vẩy chồi và vết nứt của chồi.

Bệnh phát sinh mạnh vào tháng 4-6. Khi trời nắng gắt nấm bệnh ngừng hoạt động.

Biện pháp phòng trừ

Phun thuốc hợp chất lưu huỳnh+vôi loãng 3-5oBe vào đầu mùa xuân, phun liên tục 2-3 lần cách nhau 7-10 ngày.

Thu hái lá bệnh và đốt để giảm nguồn lây.

Không bón phân chưa hoai.

Bệnh thủng lá đào

Đây là bệnh phổ biến, sẽ tạo điều kiện cho các loại nấm bệnh khác xâm nhập. Ban đầu xuất hiện các đốm nhỏ, sau lan rộng, xung quanh đốm có viền màu xanh vàng, về sau đốm bệnh khô, mép nứt ra và rụng xuống tạo thành các vết thủng.
bệnh thủng lá đào

Nguyên nhân gây bệnh

Bệnh do vi khuẩn Xanthomonas pruni Dowson thuộc lớp vi khuẩn thật, bộ vi khuẩn đơn bào giả gây ra. Nhiệt độ thích hợp cho sự phát triển là 24oC – 28oC. Bệnh lây lan nhờ nước và gió. Những cây đào yếu, thoát nước kém không thoáng gió thường bị bệnh rất nặng.

Biện pháp phòng trừ

Nên bón phân hữu cơ, tránh bón phân nhiều đạm.

Tỉa cành thông thoáng, loại bỏ cành bệnh, trồng đào nơi thoáng gió và thoát nước tốt.

Không nên trồng xen lẫn giữa lê và đào vì có thể lây nhiễm lẫn nhau.

Khi bị bệnh, phun thuốc lưu huỳnh + vôi 3-5oBe hoặc phun Sunfat kẽm 1 phần +vôi 4 phần + nước 240 phần hoặc phun Zineb 0,2%.

Rệp đào

Tên khoa học của rệp đào là Myzuss persicae Sulzer thuộc bộ cánh đều, họ rệp.

Nguyên nhân gây bệnh

Rệp làm cho lá đào vàng và cuộn lại. Rệp dài khoảng 2mm, đầu và ngực màu đen, lưng đốm đen, bụng màu xanh hoặc vàng hoặc nâu đỏ. Mỗi năm rệp sinh sản 10 lứa, qua đông bằng trứng, sang xuân bắt đầu nở và gây hại chồi non. Tháng 5 gây hại mạnh nhất. Tháng 6-7 rệp mọc cánh và bay sang cây khác để gây hại.

Biện pháp phòng trừ

Bảo vệ các loài thiên địch của rệp như bọ rùa, chuồn chuồn cỏ, ruồi ăn rệp, ong kén rệp.

Phun thuốc phòng ngừa 3 lần trong năm: đầu xuân, tháng 6-7 và giữa thu. Thuốc sử dụng là Phoxim 0,2% hoặc DDVP 0,1% hoặc nước xà phòng loãng (1 xà phòng+150 nước).

Khi bệnh nặng, sử dụng 1 bột lưu huỳnh+ 2 nước+ 2 dầu hỏa+ 0,02 bột giặt; tất cả đun nóng lên, để nguội rồi phun.

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