Cây Ăn Quả


Posted On April 10, 2017 at 5:40 pm by / 80 Comments

Bệnh đốm trắng hại thanh long là bệnh mới xuất hiện thời gian gần đây và gây hại trên diện rộng trên các vùng trồng thanh long tập trung ở Bình Thuận, Đồng Nai, Long An, Tiền Giang…

Bệnh gây hại trong mùa mưa và ảnh hưởng đến sinh trưởng, phát triển, năng suất và phẩm chất thanh long. Hiện nay, theo thông tin nhận được, bệnh đã lây lan và phát triển diện rộng ở Bình Thuận và Long An. Dưới đây là một số thông tin ban đầu để nông dân tham khảo nhằm chăm sóc và phòng trị kịp thời.

Tác nhân và triệu chứng

Tác nhân: Nấm Scytalidium dimidiatum (Ascomycota).

Bộ phận bị gây hại: Cành và quả.

Triệu chứng: Vết bệnh ban đầu là những đốm tròn trắng, lõm, sau có màu nâu vàng (gỉ sắt), phần trung tâm hơi lồi, bệnh nặng đốm bệnh liên kết gây thối cành. Bệnh gây hại chủ yếu trên cành non, cành bánh tẻ, trái non và sắp chín.

Điều kiện môi trường: Gây hại trong mùa mưa, nhiệt độ từ 20 – 30 độ C. Ẩm độ không khí cao, mực thủy cấp trong vườn cao, vườn rậm rạp, vệ sinh vườn kém, vườn bón nhiều đạm, bón phân chuồng chưa hoai mục, dùng nhiều chất kích thích tăng trưởng,… mưa nắng xen kẽ bệnh dễ xảy ra.

Phòng trừ

Giống sạch bệnh.

Tưới nước đầy đủ (vườn bệnh nên hạn chế tưới vào buổi chiều), bón phân cân đối NPK, không bón nhiều đạm, không lạm dụng chất kích thích.

Tăng cường bón phân giàu K, Ca, Mg, Si… để tăng sức đề kháng.

Vệ sinh đồng ruộng, cắt tỉa cành sau thu hoạch, loại bỏ cành bệnh, trái… và mang đi tiêu hủy (chôn, đốt…).

Thăm vườn thường xuyên, phát hiện và phòng trị sớm.

Phòng trị: Kinh nghiệm nông dân ở Tiền Giang, Long An và Bình Thuận, nên phát hiện bệnh sớm và phun thuốc SAIPORA 350 SC, nồng độ 80 – 100 ml/bình 16l, định kỳ 5 – 7 ngày phun 1 lần.

Ghi chú: Thuốc Saipora 350 SC đã được Công ty BVTV Sài Gòn đăng ký với Cục BVTV vào năm 2013 để tiến hành khảo nghiệm trừ bệnh đốm trắng trên thanh long.


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