BỆNH THAN ĐEN – CORN SMUT, COMMON SMUT, BOIL SMUT, BLISTER SMUT – AGRICULTURE
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Bệnh Than Đen - Blister Smut

BỆNH THAN ĐEN – CORN SMUT, COMMON SMUT, BOIL SMUT, BLISTER SMUT

Posted On May 13, 2017 at 8:38 pm by / 544 Comments

Tác nhân gây bệnh:

Bệnh do nấm Ustilago maydis; U. zeae. 

Triệu chứng:

Bệnh có thể  hại trên lá, thân, bông cờ và chủ yếu là trên trái . Đặc trưng điển hình của bệnh là tạo thành các u sưng.Lúc đầu vết bệnh chỉ sùi lên như một cái bọc nhỏ, sau đó phình to được bọc bởi một lớp bọc trắng, phớt hồng, dần chuyển sang màu tro. Bên trong là một khối rắn vàng trắng sau biến thành bột đen, đó là khối bào tử hậu. Bộ phận bị bệnh tạo thành những u sưng dị hình, thối hỏng làm giảm năng suất ngô đáng kể.

Trên thân, lá, cờ và trái có những bướu to. Bướu có màu trắng, xám, hồng rồi đen, bên trong chứa nhiều bì bào tử màu đen (chlamydospores) hoặc đông bào tử (teliospores) màu nâu đen. Các bướu vỡ ra và phóng thích bào tử, bào tử được gió đưa sang cây khác hoặc tiềm sinh trong đất. Cây con bị nhiểm bệnh có thể chết sớm. Hạt bị nhiểm bệnh sẽ trở thành bướu (gall).

Phòng trừ:

– Vệ sinh đồng ruộng: thu dọn cây bệnh trước và sau vụ mùa, loại trừ các bướu bệnh bằng cách cắt bỏ bướu khi chúng mới xuất hiện.
– Hạn chế các vết thương cơ học gây ra trên cây, ngăn ngừa sâu đục thân.
– Cày sâu, phơi đất, bón phân cân đối. Áp dụng biện pháp luân canh với chu kỳ 2-5 năm cho những nơi bi bệnh nặng thường xuyên.
– Dùng giống kháng bệnh. Chọn hạt giống từ cây mạnh. Có thể kiểm tra hạt giống trước khi gieo trồng, bằng phương pháp rửa hạt: cho hạt vào nước vô trùng, lắc mạnh trong 15 phút rồi ly tâm (3000 vòng/phút), quan sát chất lắng, dưới kính hiển vi, để phát hiện đông bào tử.
– Khử hạt bằng hổn hợp Carboxin và Thiram hoặc bằng Benomyl, hoặc bằng cách xông hơi nước nóng 45 độ C trong 3 giờ hoặc 47 độ C trong 2 giờ.
– Việc phun thuốc trừ nấm bệnh chỉ giới hạn được phần nào tác hại của bệnh.
– Phòng trừ sinh học: các nghiên cứu về vi khuẩn đối kháng đã được tiến hành trong những năm của hai thập niên 1930 và 1940, nhưng sau đó, công trình nầy không được tiếp tục nữa. Hiện nay,  người ta phát hiện có một loài amip và loài myxobacterium có khả năng trừ được nấm bệnh !IU. maydis!i trong đất.
 

– Phòng trừ hoá học: Không dùng ngô bị bệnh để làm giống, chỉ sử dụng hạt giống sạch bệnh.  Xử lý hạt giống trước khi gieo bằng thuốc Thiram 85 WP, lượng 2-3 kg/tấn giống. Dùng các giống ngô chống chịu bệnh, Luân canh với lúa hoặc các cây đậu đỗ. Vệ sinh đồng ruộng, thu dọn sạch tàn dư cây bệnh đem tiêu hủy. Phun các loại thuốc trừ bệnh như Thiram 85 WP, Tiptop 250 EC. Phun khi bắt đầu xuất hiện bệnh từ 1 – 5%.

Phun trừ khi thấy có triệu chứng bệnh xuất hiện (7-10 ngày trước và sau trổ) với các loại thuốc sau:

Aviso 350SC 14 ml/16 lít nước
Ridozeb 80 WP, Mancozeb 80WP 60-80 g/16 lít nước

Ngoại cảnh:

Sự biến động của nấm bệnh là do sự thay đổi về khả năng gây bệnh và đặc tính của nó trong môi trường nuôi cấy.
Sự  lan  truyền bệnh:  trong đất, các đông bào  tử nẩy mầm sinh ra các đãm bào tử. Đãm bào tử nhờ gió phát tán, gặp ký chủ sẽ tiếp tục chu kỳ gây bệnh, đây là nguồn lây lan chủ yếu của bệnh nầy (Hình 20). Vào năm 1977, đã có ghi nhận chi tiết cho rằng hạt bệnh cũng là nguồn lan truyền bệnh quan trọng, nhưng sau đó điều nầy không được công nhận nữa, có nghĩa là mầm bệnh ở hạt giống không phải là nguồn lây lan chủ yếu.

Bệnh xuất hiện và gây hại ở hầu hết các vùng trồng ngô. Nấm bệnh xâm nhập gây bệnh qua vết thương cơ giới do chăm sóc, vun xới hoặc mưa gió, do sâu bệnh cắn phá. Bệnh phát triển mạnh ở ruộng trồng dày và bón nhiều đạm vô cơ. Bào tử nấm bệnh tồn tại trên hạt giống và tàn dư cây bện là nguồn lây nhiễm cho vụ sau. Các giống ngô địa phương thường bị bệnh nặng.

Chu trình:

Các thể sinh sản (sori) được thành lập dưới dạng các bướu bất thường trên lá, thân hoặc trên các phát hoa; Kích thước bướu rất thay đổi: bướu dài từ dưới 1cm đến 10cm.
Đông bào  tử hình cầu hoặc hình ellip, bề mặt có gai nhỏ, đường kính: 8-11 micron; khi nẩy mầm cho ra 4 hoặc nhiều hơn 4  đãm bào tử (sporidia, basidiospores). Đãm bào tử không màu (hyaline) và có dạng hình thoi.
Bì bào tử có thể lưu tồn rất lâu (7 năm) trong đất và hạt.
Mầm bệnh tấn công vào cây con, làm cây bị chết ngay hoặc bệnh phát triển theo sự phát triển của cây và tạo ra triệu chứng khi cây bước vào giai đoạn sinh dục. Ngoài ra, bì bào tử còn có thể xâm nhiểm vào cây lúc trổ cờ. Cây dễ bị nhiểm bệnh khi cây bị sâu đục thân tấn công, khi gốc cây bị thương tích hoặc khi bẻ cờ lúc chọn tạo giống. Mô tế bào nhiểm bệnh sẽ có lượng amin acid tự do (như glutamic, alanin, glycin) tích tụ cao, nhưng khi bướu được hình thành thì glycin và alanin sẽ giảm, còn glutamic vẫn cao hơn bình thường.

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