QUY TRÌNH KỸ THUẬT TRỒNG XOÀI THEO VIETGAP – AGRICULTURE
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QUY TRÌNH KỸ THUẬT TRỒNG XOÀI THEO VIETGAP

Posted On January 10, 2017 at 1:45 am by / 1,793 Comments

I. GIỐNG TRỒNG

Hiện nay, tại Đồng bằng sông Cửu Long có rất nhiều giống xoài. Tùy theo điều kiện đất đai, nguồn nước, thị trường tiêu thụ mà chọn những giống phù hợp, mang lại hiệu quả kinh tế cao.

Xoài cát Hòa Lộc: Trái to, trọng lượng trung bình 400-500gr/trái, phẩm chất ngon, vị thơm, thịt mịn chắc, khi chín vỏ quả có màu vàng chanh, thịt có màu vàng tươi, rất ngọt (độ Brix trung bình từ 16-18%), được thị trường ưa chuộng, bán với giá cao. Tuy nhiên, giống xoài này có vỏ mỏng nên khó vận chuyển và xuất khẩu vì dễ bị dập nếu chuyên chở không cẩn thận và giống này có tỉ lệ đậu trái thấp.

Xoài Cát Chu: Trái dạng hơi tròn, trọng lượng trung bình 300-350gr/trái, phẩm chất khá ngon, vị hơi chua (độ Brix 15-16%), thịt quả không dẻ, chặt nhưng ít xơ và vỏ trái dày hơn xoài cát Hòa Lộc. Ưu điểm là dễ đậu trái và cho năng suất cao.

Ngoài các giống xoài trên, còn có một số giống xoài dùng để “ăn xanh” như xoài Falun, Kiew-Savoey, Nam-Dok-Mai (Thái Lan) và đặc biệt là xoài Tượng Đài Loan rất được ưa chuộng vì trái lớn, dễ ra hoa, đậu trái và cho năng suất cao.

II. ĐẤT TRỒNG

– Xoài thích hợp trên nhiều loại đất, nhưng tốt nhất là đất thịt pha cát có tầng đất mặt dày, thoát nước tốt, có thuỷ cấp không sâu quá 2,5m, pH từ 5,5-7,0 và cần có đê bao chống lũ triệt để cho vườn xoài.

– Để thực hiện quy trình VietGAP cần vẽ sơ đồ vườn trồng, đính kèm bản đồ đất cho từng khu vực và đáp ứng các chỉ tiêu 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9 của phụ lục 4.

III. KỸ THUẬT TRỒNG

1. Chuẩn bị cây giống:

Giống trồng phải đáp ứng theo chỉ tiêu thứ 4, 5 của phụ lục 4.

Nên chọn cây giống được nhân giống bằng phương pháp vô tính như tháp mắt (bo) hay tháp đọt cây sẽ mau cho trái (2-3 năm) và sẽ giữ được phẩm chất của cây mẹ. Cây giống tốt là cây không bị nhiễm sâu bệnh, phát triển tốt, có 2-3 cơi đọt, có đường kính than khoảng 1 cm, lá phải ở giai đoạn trưởng thành.

2. Chuẩn bị mô:

Mô trồng xoài có chiều cao trung bình 40-60 cm, chiều rộng đáy mô từ 60-80 cm và chiều rộng mặt mô từ 40-60 cm. Đất đắp mô tốt nhất là lớp đất mặt hoặc đất phù sa sông đã để khô ít nhất một tháng. Trước khi đắp mô, nên xới nền đất để giúp cho rễ cây xoài có thể phát triển xuống sâu hơn. Mỗi mô nên trộn thêm từ 5-10 kg phân hữu cơ hoặc phân chuồng để làm cho đất tơi xốp và 0,5 kg phân lân trước khi trồng để giúp cho rễ cây phát triển mạnh. Nếu phân hữu cơ ở dạng bán phân hủy nên chuẩn bị mô trước từ 15-20 ngày để giúp cho phân tiếp tục phân hủy. Hàng năm nên bồi mô rộng ra để giúp cho rễ cây xoài phát triển.

3. Mật độ và khoảng cách trồng:

Xoài là cây ưa sáng và có trái ở chồi tận cùng ngoài tán cây. Nếu trồng quá dày, cây sẽ che rợp lẫn nhau dẫn đến năng suất thấp nhưng trồng quá thưa những năm đầu vườn xoài sẽ có sản lượng thấp. Theo phương pháp trồng xoài cổ điển thì trồng khoảng cách từ 6 – 8 m, tương đương mật độ 156-277 cây/ha. Hiện nay, xu hướng trồng xoài mật độ cao với khoảng cách (5 x 6)m hoặc (6 x 6)m, tương đương 277-333 cây/ha sau đó đốn tỉa dần.

4. Quản lý nước:

-Hàng năm, phân tích chất lượng nước để đánh giá nguy cơ ô nhiễm nhằm đưa ra biện pháp khắc phục. Chất lượng nước tưới phải đáp ứng các chỉ tiêu 15, 16 của phụ lục 4.

-Hệ thống đê bao để quản lý nước trong vườn xoài là yếu tố quan trọng quyết định sự thành công, đặc biệt là điều khiển cho xoài ra hoa trái vụ. Phải chống ngập úng trong mùa mưa lũ và tưới cho cây xoài trong mùa khô.

-Cây xoài cần đảm bảo đủ nước cho từng giai đoạn sinh trưởng, riêng giai đoạn kích thích ra hoa cần phải “xiết” nước để giúp cây ra hoa tốt.

Tóm lại, chủ động được nước là yêu cầu quan trọng hàng đầu trong việc thâm canh cây xoài.

5. Quản lý phân bón:

Phải đáp ứng các chỉ tiêu 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 của phụ lục 4. Nếu nhà vườn tự ủ phân chuồng thì cần xây dựng và đặt bể ủ phân đảm bảo cách ly, không gây ô nhiễm cho vườn trồng và nguồn nước tưới. 

5.1. Các chất dinh dưỡng cần thiết:

Cây xoài cần nhiều nhất là đạm, lân, kali, canxi, ma-nhê, ….

Đạm: Đạm là yếu tố quan trọng hàng đầu thúc đẩy phát triển thân lá, rất cần cho sự ra hoa và đậu trái của xoài. Việc bón đạm cho xoài qua sự hấp thu của rễ cũng thúc đẩy sự ra hoa nhưng không tập trung như phun qua lá.

Lân: Hàm lượng chất lân trong chồi cao sẽ thúc đẩy sự phân hóa mầm hoa, nhưng nếu nồng độ chất lân thấp sẽ không thúc đẩy sự ra hoa. Lân giúp giảm độ chua của đất.

– Kali: Kali là yếu tố quan trọng thứ hai sau đạm ảnh hưởng lên sự ra hoa của xoài. Bón đạm kết hợp với kali sẽ giúp cải thiện đáng kể sự ra hoa, khả năng đậu trái và phẩm chất trái xoài.

Canxi: Canxi cần thiết cho sự phát triển vách tế bào thực vật, điều hòa pH đất tại vùng rễ, giúp các chồi non phát triển tốt, nâng cao năng suất, phẩm chất và hạn chế nứt trái.

5.2. Cách bón phân:

Khuyến khích sử dụng các loại phân hữu cơ và hữu cơ vi sinh trên vườn xoài.

– Đối với cây chưa cho trái: Bón 5-6 lần/năm với lượng phân bón trung bình: 10 kg phân hữu cơ kết hợp với khoảng 300-500gr NPK (16-16-8) hoặc (20-20-15) và 300gr Urea/cây/ năm.

– Đối với cây trưởng thành: (xem ở phần kích thích ra hoa).

* Lưu ý: Khi bón phân nên xới vòng tròn theo hình chiếu tán cây, trộn phân đều vào đất, sau đó tưới nước và tủ cỏ giữ ẩm.

IV. KỸ THUẬT QUẢN LÝ TÁN CÂY

1.Tạo tán

Tạo tán để giúp cho cây có tán cân đối, dễ chăm sóc và thu hoạch trái. Kỹ thuật tạo tán là tỉa bỏ chồi ngọn để cây phát triển theo chiều rộng. Sau khi trồng khoảng 8 -12 tháng, cây có chiều cao 1 – 1,2 m tiến hành bấm ngọn, chừa lại độ cao của thân chính 0,6 – 0,8 m. Khi ra cơi đọt 1 chừa lại 2 – 3 chồi khỏe và phân bố đều tán cây, tiếp tục thực hiện kỹ thuật này cho cơi đọt 2 và 3 để đảm bảo bộ khung hoàn chỉnh và cân đối cho cây.

Cây xoài phát triển tán nhờ vào sự phát triển của chồi ngọn và chồi bên. Để cây có tán thấp cần tạo điều kiện cho chồi bên phát triển bằng cách tỉa bỏ chồi ngọn.

2. Tỉa cành

Công việc tỉa cành hàng năm nhằm duy trì bộ khung tán cây và loại bỏ cành sâu bệnh, ra đọt sớm tập trung và dễ ra hoa.

Nên tỉa cành vào mùa khô thuận lợi cho sự sinh trưởng và ra đọt non, tỉa vào mùa mưa dễ bị nấm bệnh tấn công qua vết cắt và đọt non.

– Cây tơ: Cây chuẩn bị cho trái vào năm sau

Ngắt bỏ chồi ngọn khi cây được 2-3 lần đọt (cây cao từ 60-80 cm) để cây xoài phân cành sẽ được 2-3 cành ngang. Khi cành ngang phát triển theo chiều cao được 2-3 lần đọt thì ngắt đọt cho cây phân tán lần thứ hai để có được tổng cộng 9-12 chồi ngọn. Thực hiện việc ngắt ngọn lần thứ ba, cây xoài sẽ có bộ tán với trên 20 chồi ngọn. Sau giai đoạn này cây xoài có được tán cây khá hoàn chỉnh và chỉ cần tỉa bổ sung hàng năm để duy trì tán.

Tỉa cành trong giai đoạn đầu khi cây có số lá còn ít nên tỉa vừa phải, tỉa quá nhiều sẽ làm cây chậm lớn do số lá ít không đủ sức nuôi cây. Chỉ nên tỉa tối đa 1/3 số cành, lá của cây.

– Cây trưởng thành: Việc tỉa cành được thực hiện hàng năm sau khi thu hoạch nhằm kích thích cho cây ra đọt mới sớm và đồng loạt. Nên cắt những cành mọc trong tán (che khuất lẫn nhau), cành nhỏ, cành bị sâu bệnh, cành vượt, cành thấp sát mặt đất, hay những cành mang bông đã rụng hết trái cần được tỉa để giúp cho tán cây được thông thoáng, dễ chăm sóc, phòng trừ sâu bệnh và thu hoạch.

Đối với những cây xoài lão: Có thể làm trẻ hoá bằng cách cưa bớt, bỏ hết những nhánh con chỉ chừa lại bộ khung chính. Cây trẻ hoá sẽ cho cành lá rất mạnh và chỉ ra hoa 1-2 năm sau.        

* Lưu ý: Dụng cụ dùng trong tỉa cành, tạo tán phải được vệ sinh sạch sẽ, khử trùng dụng cụ bằng nước Javel hoặc cồn 70o khi cắt hoặc tỉa cành để tránh lây bệnh qua cây khác.  

V. KỸ THUẬT ĐIỀU KHIỂN RA HOA NGHỊCH MÙA

1. Các yếu tố ảnh hưởng lên sự ra hoa xoài:

a) Yếu tố môi trường:

Môi trường là yếu tố quan trọng ảnh hưởng lên sự ra hoa và là bước đầu tiên để đạt được khả năng cho năng suất cao.

Nhiệt độ: Nhiệt độ thấp kích thích tạo mầm hoa và làm cho cây trổ bông, những năm không lạnh cây sẽ ra hoa ít và thời gian ra hoa kéo dài. Nhiệt độ vào ban đêm từ 18-20oC thuận lợi cho sự ra hoa của xoài. Ở ĐBSCL, tháng 12-1dl có nhiệt độ thích hợp kích thích cho sự ra hoa nên xoài thường ra hoa vào tháng 1-2 dl.

– Tạo sự khô hạn và ngập úng: Biện pháp “xiết nước” để gây “sốc” cho cây ra hoa (rất hiệu quả ở giai đoạn kích thích ra chồi đồng loạt), “tạo ngập úng” cũng là một yếu tố thúc đẩy sự ra hoa trên cây xoài. Do đó, kết hợp hai biện pháp này cây xoài sẽ ra hoa sớm và đáp ứng tốt với việc xử lý ra hoa nghịch mùa.

b) Giống:

Sự ra hoa của xoài lệ thuộc nhiều vào đặc tính giống. Ở nước ta, các giống xoài Thơm, Chu, Thanh Ca, xoài Ù,… rất dễ kích thích ra hoa, trong khi giống xoài cát Hòa Lộc thì tương đối khó hơn.

c) Tuổi của cành:

Tuổi cành cũng là yếu tố quan trọng ảnh hưởng lên sự ra hoa của xoài. Cành còn non kích thích xoài sẽ ra đọt, trái lại cành già (lớn hơn 10 tháng tuổi do hình thành từ năm trước) thì miên trạng rất sâu nên khó kích thích ra hoa. Kết quả nghiên cứu trên các giống xoài ở ĐBSCL thì ngoại trừ giống xoài cát Hòa Lộc kích thích ra hoa đạt hiệu quả cao khi cành 1,5-2 tháng tuổi (lá chuyển từ màu xanh nhạt sang màu xanh đậm). Đối với xoài cát Chu, Thanh Ca, Bưởi, xoài Ù có thể kích thích ra hoa khoảng 1,5 tháng tuổi khi lá còn dẻo.

d) Tình trạng sinh trưởng và năng suất năm trước của cây:

Tình trạng sinh trưởng của cây và năng suất năm trước có ảnh huởng rất lớn lên sự ra hoa xoài.

– Cây xoài bị kiệt sức do đậu trái quá nhiều hoặc cho năng suất cao trong năm trước sẽ làm giảm khả năng đâm chồi và phân hóa mầm hoa ở năm tiếp theo. Do đó, những năm cây đậu trái quá nhiều cần phải tỉa bớt trái và phải bón phân nhiều hơn để cây không bị suy kiệt ở năm tiếp theo.

– Đối với cây cho trái ít ở năm trước hoặc cây đang phát triển thân lá mạnh rất khó xử lý ra hoa, nên hạn chế bón lượng phân đạm, kết hợp với phương pháp tạo sự khô hạn và sử dụng Paclobutrazol giúp cho cây xoài ra hoa tốt hơn.

2. Quy trình xử lý ra hoa xoài:

Có nhiều biện pháp để kích thích ra hoa xoài như: xông khói, khoanh cành, xử lý hóa chất như Ethephon (Ethrel, HPC 97 hay Ra Hoa Xanh), Nitrat kali hay Paclobutrazol (Paclo)….

Quy trình xử lý ra hoa xoài sử dụng Paclobutrazol:

* Giai đoạn sau thu hoạch:

Cần tỉa bỏ những cành: đã thu hoạch trái, vô hiệu, ốm yếu, bị sâu bệnh, che rợp lẫn nhau và phát hoa không mang trái để giúp cho cây ra đọt đồng loạt tạo điều kiện ra hoa đồng loạt

Bón phân: Tùy theo tình trạng sinh trưởng của cây, năng suất mùa trước có thể áp dụng theo công thức như sau: Phân hữu cơ 10kg/cây kết hợp NPK 20-20-15 + Urê theo tỉ lệ 1:1 với lượng 1,5-2,0 kg/cây cho cây trên 10 năm tuổi.

– Sau khi bón phân cần tưới nước 2-3 ngày/lần giúp cây hấp thụ phân tốt.

– Kích thích cho cây ra đọt non đồng loạt bằng cách phun Urê với liều lượng 150-200 gr/10 lít nước (lưu ý dễ cháy lá), các sản phẩm có chứa Gibberellin (GA3).

* Giai đoạn ra đọt non:

Đây là đợt đọt quan trọng quyết định sự ra hoa, do đó cần chú ý phòng trừ các loại sâu bệnh để bảo vệ đọt non. Các loại sâu bệnh cần chú ý: Bệnh thán thư, rầy bông xoài, bọ cắt lá và sâu đục cành ….  

* Xử lý ra hoa:

+ Xử lý Paclobutrazol khi lá non phát triển hoàn toàn, lúc lá có màu đỏ đồng và được 10-15 ngày tuổi. Pha 1-2 gr hoạt chất/1m đường kính tán với 3-5 lít nước tưới quanh gốc cây, sau đó tưới nước liên tục 1-2 ngày/lần trong 7 ngày.

+ 25-30 ngày sau khi xử lý Paclo thì bón phân: DAP + KCl theo tỉ lệ 1:1 với lượng 300-500gr/cây và phun MKP 0-52-34 với liều lượng 50-80 gr/10 lít nước, cách 10 ngày phun 1 lần, phun 2 – 3 lần.

+ 45-60 ngày sau khi xử lý Paclo thì phun KNO3 kích thích ra hoa. Phun khi thời tiết khô ráo, chồi ngọn phát triển mạnh, nhô cao, gân lá phát triển hoặc cong lại. 5-7 ngày sau tiến hành phun lại lần 2 với liều lượng giảm 50%.

* Giai đoạn ra hoa:

– Bón thúc cho hoa phát triển với phân NPK 15-15-15 với liều lượng 200-300gr/cây.

– Phun thuốc phòng ngừa rầy bông xoài, bọ trĩ và bệnh thán thư.

– Phun các sản phẩm tăng đậu trái có chứa Bo hai đợt, đợt 1 khi hoa khoảng 10 cm, đợt 2 khi hoa nở khoảng 15% trên bông.

* Giai đoạn đậu trái “rớt nhụy”:

Hoa xoài thụ phấn chủ yếu nhờ côn trùng như ruồi, ong,… nên hạn chế phun các loại thuốc trừ sâu bệnh trong giai đoạn này để không làm ảnh hưởng đến quá trình thụ phấn của hoa. Chú ý, nếu gặp thời tiết xấu có thể phun ngừa bệnh thán thư và bọ trĩ.

* Giai đoạn phát triển trái:

– Giai đoạn trứng cá (7-10 ngày sau khi đậu trái/NSKĐT): phun một trong các loại phân bón lá như: HVP, 15-30-15 hoặc Canxi nitrat 0,5%,… để giảm rụng trái non.

– Giai đoạn 30 NSKĐT: Phun GA3 để giảm rụng trái non.

– Giai đoạn 45 NSKĐT: Bón phân gốc để giúp cho trái phát triển. Có thể dùng phân NPK 20-20-15 liều lượng 400-500 gr/cây 7-8 năm tuổi, 1-1,5 kg/cây >10 năm tuổi. Phun GA3để làm giảm rụng trái non, phun Canxi nitrat hoặc Clorua canxi với liều lượng 10-20 gr/8 lít nước để hạn chế nứt trái. Phun 2-3 lần cách nhau 10 ngày/lần để làm tăng phẩm chất trái.

– Giai đoạn 60 NSKĐT: Nếu trái phát triển chậm, nên bón thêm 1-2 kg phân NPK 20-20-15/cây để giúp trái phát triển tốt.

– Giai đoạn 70-80 NSKĐT: Phun Nitrate kali nồng độ 1% để làm tăng phẩm chất trái.

Chú ý phòng trừ: Rầy bông xoài, sâu đo ăn bông, bọ trĩ, sâu đục trái (hột), bệnh thán thư …   

VI. BAO TRÁI

Tỉa tráiChọn những trái phát triển đều đặn để tiến hành bao trái, đối với cát Hòa Lộc chỉ để 1 trái/cuống, cát Chu để 3-4 trái/cuống.

Bao tráiTiến hành vào giai đoạn 30-45 NSKĐT.

Khi bao trái xếp miệng bao gọn gàng, kín và tạo thành hình mái nhà để không cho nước vào tiếp xúc với trái xoài. Khi thu hoạch xong đợt 1 phải phơi khô, xếp gọn, thẳng và xử lý thuốc trừ nấm bệnh trước khi bao đợt 2.

Nhằm tạo ra sản phẩm có chất lượng cao, không khuyết tật, ngăn chặn sự tấn công của côn trùng, bệnh hại như: sâu đục trái, ruồi đục trái (đối tượng kiểm dịch của các nước nhập khẩu xoài), rệp sáp, bệnh thán thư, bệnh đốm da ếch, bệnh nứt trái xì mủ .

Bao trái sẽ hạn chế được số lần phun thuốc hóa học từ 5 – 7 lần/vụ, giúp vỏ trái bóng đẹp, bán được giá cao, góp phần hạ giá thành sản phẩm, tăng lợi nhuận, giúp giảm ô nhiễm môi trường và không tồn dư thuốc BVTV trên trái.

* Lưu ý: Trước khi bao trái nên tiến hành phun thuốc BVTV để phòng trừ sâu bệnh.

VII. QUẢN LÝ SÂU BỆNH

– Quản lý sâu bệnh phải đáp ứng các chỉ tiêu từ thứ 17 đến 29 của phụ lục 4.

– Tập trung áp dụng các biện pháp quản lý sâu bệnh tổng hợp (IPM), quản lý cây trồng tổng hợp (ICM).

1. Sâu hại:

1.1. Sâu đục trái (Noorda albizonalis):

Bướm sâu đục trái xoài

Sâu đục trái xoài

Bướm đẻ trứng trên trái xoài non (30-45 NSĐT) ở phần đít trái, sâu có khoang trắng đỏ trên lưng, sâu non đục một lổ nhỏ và chui vào trong ăn phần thịt trái, sâu lớn tấn công vào ăn hạt xoài, vết đục tạo điều kiện cho nấm, vi khuẩn xâm nhập làm thối trái, trái non rụng nhiều, cắt trái xoài có sâu nằm bên trong.

* Phòng trị:

– Phải sử dụng bao trái.

– Thu gom những trái bị hại đem tiêu hủy.

1.2. Rầy bông xoài (Idioscopus spp.):

Gây hại trên các bộ phận non như bông, đọt, lá và trái non, rầy chích hút làm lá không phát triển, lá bị cong, rìa lá khô, phát bông bị khô, trái không phát triển và rụng đi.

Rầy còn thải ra mật đường làm cho nấm bồ hóng phát triển mạnh gây đen bông và trái. Khi vào vườn xoài có rầy hiện diện sẽ nghe những tiếng động nhỏ do rầy di chuyển nên rất dễ phát hiện.

* Phòng trị:

– Tỉa cành tạo điều kiện thông thoáng để hạn chế sự phát triển của rầy.

– Một số loài thiên địch rầy bông xoài như: bọ xít ăn thịt (Revudiidae), ong ký sinh và nấm Verticellium lecanii, Hirsutella sp.

Ấu trùng rầy bông xoài

Rầy bông xoài trưởng thành

1.3. Rệp sáp (Pseudoccoccus sp):

Rệp sáp hại cành và lá xoài

Rệp sáp hại quả xoài

Có nhiều loài rệp sáp gây hại trên xoài nhưng quan trọng là loài gây hại trên trái vì chúng gây ảnh hưởng đến chất lượng, năng suất và giá trị của trái.       

Rệp sáp ở mặt dưới lá, chích hút nhựa lá non, cuống trái, chất thải của rệp tạo điều kiện nấm bồ hống phát triển làm cho trái chậm lớn.

* Phòng trị:

– Bảo tồn thiên địch như: ong ký sinh và bọ rùa … để hạn chế rệp sáp.

– Phun thuốc hóa học như : dầu khoáng DS 98.8 EC, Admire 050 EC, Supracide 40 EC.

1.4. Ruồi đục quả xoài (Bactrocera dorsalis):

Ruồi đục quả xoài

Quả xoài bị ruồi đục

– Ruồi trưởng thành màu vàng, cánh trong, hoạt động vào ban ngày, đẻ trứng lên quả phần tiếp giáp giữa vỏ và thịt quả, trứng hình quả chuối màu trắng ngà sau chuyển sang màu vàng nhạt. Giòi nở ra đục vào trong ăn thịt trái, vỏ trái nơi ruồi đục vào có màu đen, mềm, ứ nhựa, tạo điều kiện cho nấm bệnh tấn công làm thối trái và có thể bị rụng hoặc vẫn đeo trên cây. Ruồi làm nhộng trong đất quanh gốc cây, sau đó vũ hóa, chui lên mặt đất.

– Ruồi đục quả là đối tượng kiểm dịch khi xuất nhập khẩu trái cây. Ruồi tấn công lên nhiều loại cây trồng, trái xoài bị ruồi đục làm giảm giá trị thương phẩm, chất lượng và không xuất khẩu được. 

* Phòng trị:

– Phải sử dụng bao trái.

– Không trồng xen các loại cây ăn trái khác trong vườn xoài.

– Thu, hái và đem tiêu hủy toàn bộ trái rụng trên mặt đất và trái còn đeo trên cây vì là nơi ruồi lưu tồn.

– Dùng feremone dẩn dụ để giết ruồi đực.

– Phun mồi protein thủy phân: Do ruồi cái thích ăn protein để phát triển trứng, ruồi đực phát triển tinh trùng, nên có thể dùng bả mồi protein để diệt ruồi. Pha 4cc Malate 73 EC với 55cc mồi protein trong 1 lít nước. Phun 200cc hổn hợp này cho 1 cây, phun theo từng điểm, để dẫn dụ và diệt ruồi. Đây là phương pháp hiệu quả và phù hợp với sản xuất trái cây theo hướng an toàn và khuyến cáo áp dụng đồng loạt cả khu vực.

1.5. Bọ cắt lá (Deporaus marginatus):

Thường gây hại nặng trong vườn ươm cây con hoặc ở vườn xoài mới ra đọt non vào mùa khô. Thành trùng là bọ cánh cứng màu nâu vàng, đầu và ngực màu đỏ cam, miệng là cái vòi dài. Thành trùng thường đẻ trứng trên bìa lá non vào ban đêm, sau đó bọ cắn lá như cắt ngang chừa 1/3 lá trên cây, trứng sẽ theo 2/3 lá cắt rơi xuống đất, sau 2 ngày ấu trùng sẽ nở ra, ăn phần lá rơi và hóa nhộng dưới mặt đất. Bọ cắt lá gây ảnh hưởng đến sự sinh trưởng và ra hoa rất lớn, do làm giảm diện tích lá trên chồi.

* Phòng trị:

– Điều khiển cây ra đọt non đồng loạt.

– Thu dọn các lá bị hại trong vườn đem tiêu hủy.

1.6. Sâu đục cành non (Alcicodes sp.):

Bướm và nhộng sâu đục cành xoài

1.7. Nhện đỏ (Oligonichus sp.):

Nhện đỏ

Lá xoài bị nhện đỏ gây hại

Sống tập trung ở mặt dưới những lá đã chuyển sang màu xanh, chích hút dịch lá, trái làm cho lá có màu đồng hoặc xám bạc và làm vỏ trái sần sùi gây hiện tượng da cám. Dọc gân chính của lá có nhiều vết lấm tấm nhỏ, đó là lớp da củ của nhện sau lột xác còn để lại. Nhện đỏ phát triển mạnh khi thời tiết nắng nóng, quan sát kỹ mặt dưới lá sẽ thấy chúng di chuyển.

* Phòng trị:

– Dùng vòi nước áp lực cao phun phía dưới mặt lá.

– Bảo tồn thiên địch để hạn chế được sự bộc phát của nhện.

– Khi mật số nhện cao, có thể sử dụng thuốc hóa học để phòng trị.

1.8. Bọ trĩ (Bù lạch) (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood):

Bọ trĩ hại xoài

Bọ trĩ gây hại trên lá xoài

Bọ trĩ gây hại trên bông và quả xoài

Thành trùng có kích thước rất nhỏ 0,1-0,2 mm, khó nhìn thấy bằng mắt thường. Cả con trưởng thành và ấu trùng đều tập trung ở bộ phận non của cây như đọt non, lá non, hoa và trái để chích hút nhựa. Trên lá non làm lá thâm đen và cong queo, mép lá cụp xuống, trên trái tạo thành vùng da cám xung quanh cuống trái và tạo vết thương giúp vi khuẩn xâm nhập gây bệnh xì mủ trái, gây hại nặng có thể làm cho cả hoa xoài cháy khô. Bù lạch phát triển mạnh khi thời tiết nắng nóng và sinh sản rất nhanh nên rất mau kháng thuốc.

– Dùng vòi nước áp lực cao phun phía dưới mặt lá.

– Dùng dầu khoáng DS 98.8 EC + Actara 25 WG phun lúc cây ra đọt và lá non giúp ngừa được cả rầy bông xoài và sâu đục đọt xoài, không phun dầu khoáng giai đọan hoa đang nở. Phun đồng loạt trên khu vực rộng sẽ có hiệu quả cao hơn.

– Phun thuốc hóa học: Nên dùng các loại thuốc có nguồn gốc sinh học và tuân thủ nguyên tắc 4 đúng.

*Lưu ý: cần phải thường xuyên luân phiên các nhóm thuốc với nhau để ngăn chặn hiện tượng kháng thuốc.

2. Bệnh hại xoài:

2.1. Bệnh thán thư:

Do nấm Colletotrichum gloeosporioides gây ra.

Bệnh thán thư trên lá xoài

Bệnh thán thư trên bông xoài

Bệnh thán thư trên quả xoài

Bệnh gây hại nặng vào mùa mưa, những ngày có sương mù hoặc có mưa nhỏ kéo dài nhất là mưa đêm. Bệnh gây hại trên lá, cành non, phát hoa và tất cả các giai đoạn phát triển của trái. Trên lá non, vết bệnh ban đầu như mũi kim màu xanh đậm, sau chuyển nâu, to dần, ở giữa bị khô và rách, có thể làm lá bị biến dạng. Hoa, trái non bị đen sau đó khô và rụng. Trái lớn có những vết đen lõm tạo thành những vòng đồng tâm.

* Phòng trị:

– Tạo thông thoáng cho vườn (mật độ cây trồng hợp lý, tỉa cành tạo tán).

– Cắt tỉa và tiêu hủy các lá, cành, trái bị bệnh.

– Không nên tưới nước lên tán cây khi cây bị bệnh.

2.2. Bệnh thối trái, khô đọt: Do nấm Diplodia natalensis gây ra.

Bệnh gây hại trong điều kiện nóng ẩm, nhất là trong mùa mưa, ở phần đọt có những đốm nhỏ sậm màu, lan dần ra các cành non, cuống lá biến thành màu nâu, phiến lá cong lên. Cành khô và đôi khi có hiện tượng chảy nhựa.

Trên trái, bệnh tấn công vào giai đoạn thu hoạch và tồn trữ, làm thịt trái bị chai sượng, bên trong thịt trái ta thấy những sọc đen chạy dọc theo trái.

* Phòng trị:

– Khi thu hoạch nên chừa cuống trái khoảng 5cm, không làm xay xát trái trong khi thu hoạch cũng như lúc vận chuyển.

– Không thu hoạch trái lúc sáng sớm hoặc sau mưa.

2.3. Bệnh da ếch: Do nấm Chaetothyrium sp. gây ra.

Bệnh da ếch

Bệnh thường gây hại trên xoài Bưởi, xoài cát Hoà lộc, xoài thơm… bệnh gây hại nặng trong điều kiện ẩm độ cao.

Bệnh nhiễm rất sớm khi trái còn non, thường bắt đầu từ cuống trái và lan dần xuống bên dưới. Vết bệnh đầu tiên là những chấm nhỏ màu đen, tròn, sau đó lan dần ra và tạo thành các đốm màu đen rải rác trên vỏ trái xoài. Bệnh thường không làm hư trái mà làm giảm giá trị thương phẩm, bệnh nặng sẽ làm hư vỏ trái.

* Phòng trị:

– Phải sử dụng bao trái.

– Tạo thông thoáng cho vườn (mật độ cây trồng hợp lý, tỉa cành tạo tán).

 2.4. Bệnh phấn trắng: Do nấm Oidium mangiferae gây ra.

Nấm bệnh phát triển tạo thành lớp phấn trắng trên lá non, phát hoa và trái non. Bệnh thường phát triển từ ngọn của phát hoa, lan dần đến cuống hoa, trái non, lá non và cành. Thường hoa bị nhiễm bệnh trước khi thụ phấn và trái bị nhiễm bệnh sẽ bị biến dạng, méo mó, nhạt màu, bị khô và rụng sớm.

Bệnh gây thiệt hại nặng nhất trong giai đoạn trổ hoa đến đậu trái, trong điều kiện nóng ẩm và có sương đêm, bệnh sẽ bộc phát và lây lan nhanh.

 * Phòng trị: 

– Cắt tỉa cành, tạo tán cho cây phát triển mạnh, cung cấp phân bón đầy đủ.

– Thăm vườn thường xuyên để sớm phát hiện bệnh trong giai đoạn cây ra bông và đậu trái non.

– Có thể bao trái khi xoài hết giai đoạn rụng sinh lý (từ 35 – 40 ngày tuổi) để phòng ngừa nấm bệnh và tránh ruồi đục quả.

2.5. Bệnh nấm hồng: Do nấm Corticium salmonicolor gây ra.

Bệnh gây hại trên thân, cành, nhánh. Đầu tiên trên mặt vỏ thân hay nhánh có tơ nấm trắng, sau đó tạo thành những mảng màu hồng. Đôi khi không thấy mảng màu hồng mà chỉ thấy các gai nấm màu hồng phát triển từ các vết ở vỏ thân hay nhánh.

Khi nấm tấn công làm cho nhánh và thân bị mất dinh dưỡng, bệnh nặng làm nhánh khô và chết. Bệnh thường phát triển trên những cây có tàn lá rậm rạp và che khuất nhau, nhất là vào những tháng mưa nhiều. Nấm có thể gây hại trên nhiều loại cây trồng khác nhau đặc biệt như mít, sầu riêng,…

* Phòng trị:

– Tạo thông thoáng cho vườn (mật độ cây trồng hợp lý, tỉa cành tạo tán).

– Cắt bỏ và tiêu hủy các nhánh nhiễm bệnh.

2.6. Bệnh xì mủ trái: Vi khuẩn  Xanthomonas campestris pv. Mangiferae.

Bệnh đốm đen vi khuẩn trên lá xoài

Bệnh xì mủ vi khuẩn trên trái xoài

Bệnh xì mủ vi khuẩn trên quả chụp gần

Bệnh này có thể gây hại cả trái và lá xoài. Trên trái, có nhiều vết nứt ngả màu đen, có mủ rịn ra mang theo vi khuẩn. Trên lá, tạo ra các đốm đen có hình dạng bất định, tâm hơi xám, viền đen hơi gồ lên.

Vi khuẩn lây lan qua đường nước nên trong mùa mưa là điều kiện thuận lợi cho bệnh phát triển. Vi khuẩn xâm nhập vào trái qua các vết thương, vết chích của côn trùng (bù lạch, nhện đỏ, ruồi đục trái…).

 * Phòng trị:

– Phải sử dụng bao trái.

– Không nên phun nước lên lá xoài khi cây bị bệnh để tránh lây lan bệnh ra cả vườn.

– Bảo tồn thiên địch để hạn chế nhện đỏ và bù lạch.

VIII. THU HOẠCH VÀ SAU THU HOẠCH

Quản lý khâu thu hoạch và sau thu hoạch phải đáp ứng các chỉ tiêu từ thứ 30 đến 45 của phụ lục 4. 

1. Thu hoạch:

Thu hoạch phải đúng độ chín (trái sẽ chìm khi thả vào nước hoặc tỉ trọng bằng 1,02), nhằm đảm bảo chất lượng trái và bảo quản trái sau thu hoạch được lâu hơn. Nên thu hoạch lúc trời mát, không thu hoạch sau mưa hoặc có sương mù nhiều vì trái dễ bị thối khi tồn trữ. Lúc thu hoạch trái nên để cuống dài từ 5-10 cm để tránh không bị chảy nhựa làm tăng giá trị thương phẩm.

2. Bảo quản:

– Ở nhiệt độ bình thường, chỉ có thể giữ trái được khoảng 5-7 ngày. Để kéo dài thời gian bảo quản nên giữ trái trong điều kiện nhiệt độ là 120C và ẩm độ khoảng 90%. Trong quá trình bảo quản nên thông gió thường xuyên và chú ý tạo đối lưu đồng đều trong kho.  Ngoài ra, nếu bảo quản ở nhiệt độ 10-130C trong bao PE chuyên dùng thì thời gian tồn trữ có thể lên đến 22 ngày.

– Trái không để tiếp xúc trực tiếp với đất, tránh chất thành đống và phải còn nguyên cuống (dài khoảng 5cm), quay ngược đầu lại để cho khô nhựa trước khi bao giấy đưa vào thùng.

Quy trình xử lý và bảo quản xoài sau thu hoạch

Xoài (chăm sóc tốt trước thu hoạch)             

Thu hoạch (85-90 ngày sau đậu trái)

Rửa sạch (bằng nước)                      

Xử lý phòng ngừa thối trái (ngâm nước nóng…)

Đóng gói (thùng carton)            

Bảo quản hoặc vận chuyển (120C, 85-90% RH)

Làm chín.

Tư vấn kĩ thuật: 0933.067.033

 

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