BỆNH BẠC LÁ LÚA – AGRICULTURE
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BỆNH BẠC LÁ LÚA

Posted On February 24, 2017 at 7:41 pm by / 197 Comments

CÁCH PHÒNG TRỊ BỆNH BẠC LÁ LÚA


Đầu tháng 8 tỉnh Quảng Ninh chịu ảnh hưởng trực tiếp của cơn bão số 5 và 6 gây mưa to, gió mạnh trên diện rộng, nền nhiệt độ trung bình từ 25-260C, ẩm độ từ 85-90%. Điều kiện thời tiết này rất thuận lợi cho bệnh bạc lá phát sinh gây hại. Bệnh bạc lá thường gây hại vào tháng 4-6 và tháng 8-10 khi lúa ở giai đoạn đòng – chín sữa, đặc biệt lây lan mạnh khi thời tiết mưa nắng xen kẽ có gió lốc. Bệnh làm giảm khả năng quang hợp, cây lúa sinh trưởng kém, nếu lá đòng cháy sẽ gây ra hiện tượng lép lửng, ảnh hưởng đến năng xuất và chất lượng gạo.

  1. Triệu chứng và nguyên nhân gây bệnh

Bệnh bạc lá do vi khuẩn Xanthomonas Oryzae gây lên. Bệnh thường phát sinh đầu tiên ở rìa lá, mút lá sau đó lan dần vào trong phiến lá tạo thành các vết dài màu xanh nhạt sau chuyển thành màu trắng xám. Giữa phần lá bệnh và không bệnh thường có đường gợn sóng, vào sáng sớm có thể quan sát các giọt dịch vi khuẩn tròn nhỏ màu vàng nâu trên mép lá.

  1. Đặc điểm lây lan và phát triển

Bệnh thường phát sinh, phát triển và gây hại nặng khi nhiệt độ không khí khoảng 26-30 độ C, ẩm độ không khí trên 90%. Vi khuẩn gây bệnh bạc lá xâm nhập vào lá lúa qua khí khổng và các vết thương cơ giới trên lá. Tùy vào thời tiết (mưa, bão) và sự va chạm của các lá lúa sẽ làm lây bệnh trên đồng ruộng ở không gian rộng hay hẹp.

Vi khuẩn Xanthomonas Oryzae có thể tồn tại trên thóc, tàn dư cây bệnh hoặc ở dạng keo vi khuẩn, ở cỏ dại khi gặp điều kiện thuận lợi sẽ tiếp tục phát sinh và gây hại.

  1. Biện pháp phòng trừ

– Bón phân cân đối, không bón thừa đạm.

– Khi ruộng lúa có triệu chứng bệnh dừng việc sử dụng phân đạm, phun phân bón lá và chất kích thích sinh trưởng, luôn giữ đủ nước trong ruộng.

– Cấy với mật độ hợp lý, sử dụng các giống lúa có khả năng chống chịu tốt.

– Biện pháp hóa học: Khi lúa bị bệnh có thể sử dụng các loại thuốc hóa học sau để phun trừ: Sasa 20WP, 25WP; Kaisin 50, 100WP; Kamsu 2SL, 4SL; Kasumin 2SL,…

       Bảng sử dụng một số loại thuốc trừ bệnh bạc lá

TT

Tên hoạt chất

(Tên thuốc)

Liều lượng

Cách  phun

1

Hoạt chất  Saikuzuo    

(Sasa 20 WP, 25 WP…)

Pha 20g/bình 10 lít, phun 2 bình/sào

 

Phun tập trung vào phần lá bị bệnh. Nên phun khi lúa mới chớm bệnh, phun  2 lần cách nhau 5-7 ngày.

2

Hoạt chất  Steptomycin sulfate

(Kaisin 50WP, 100WP,…)

Pha 20g/bình 20 lít, phun 1bình/sào

 

3

Hoạt chất Kasugamicin

(Kamsu 2SL, 4SL; Kamsu 2L; Kasumin 2SL,…)

Pha 20ml/bình 10 lít, phun 2 bình/sào

 

Nguồn: sưu tầm.

Tư vấn kĩ thuật: 0933.067.033

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