BỆNH LEM LÉP HẠT – AGRICULTURE
CÁCH PHÒNG TRỪ BỆNH LEM LÉP HẠT LÚA
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BỆNH LEM LÉP HẠT

Posted On February 24, 2017 at 10:54 am by / 267 Comments

CÁCH PHÒNG TRỪ BỆNH LEM LÉP HẠT LÚA


Bệnh lem lép hạt là bệnh phổ biến trên cây lúa. Bệnh thường gây hại vào giai đoạn lúa trỗ bông – chín sữa, nếu gặp điều kiện thời tiết thuận lợi (mưa kéo dài, độ ẩm cao) sẽ gây tỷ lệ lép, lép lửng cao ảnh hưởng lớn đến năng suất và chât lượng gạo.

  1. Triệu chứng và nguyên nhân gây bệnh

Lúa bị bệnh lem lép hạt trên vỏ trấu có những đốm nhỏ màu sậm biến đổi từ màu nâu đến đen, khi bị bệnh nặng tạo thành những mảng nâu đen bao trùm cả vỏ trấu, chất lượng hạt gạo kém do bị biến màu hoặc bị lép.

Nguyên nhân bệnh lem lép hạt:

+ Điều kiện ngoại cảnh và kỹ thuật canh tác: Mưa nhiều, ẩm độ cao sẽ tạo điều kiện cho nấm bệnh phát triển. Sạ dầy, bón phân không cân đối, bón thừa phân đạm.

+ Do nấm và vi khuẩn gây bệnh: Đây là nguyên nhân phổ biến nhất gây bệnh lem lép hạt.

Vi khuẩn phổ biến nhất là vi khuẩn Pseudomonas glumae gây bệnh thối đen hạt và nấm gây bệnh trên hạt như:  Alternaria padwickii, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium sp, Curvularia lunata, Microdochium oryzae, Phoma sp, Pyricularia oryzae, Sarocladium oryzae, Septoria sp, Tilletia barclayana, Ustilagonoides virens…

  1. Đặc điểm lây lan và phát triển

Bệnh phát triển mạnh từ giai đoạn lúa trỗ bông, đặc biệt lây lan và phát triển khi điều kiện thời tiết mưa, ẩm kéo dài.

Cây lúa sinh trưởng kém trên ruộng nghèo dinh dưỡng, nhiễm chua sẽ tạo điều kiện thuận lợi cho các loại nấm bệnh gây hại trên lá rồi lan lên hạt. Nấm có thể bám trên vỏ trấu sau khi thu hoạch lúa, lưu tồn và tiếp tục gây hại ở vụ sau.

Cỏ dại trong ruộng lúa cũng là ký chủ cho nấm bệnh phát triển và phát tán. Ngoài ra, các loại sâu bệnh tấn công lúa vào giai đoạn đòng trổ như bệnh đạo ôn cổ bông, nhện gié, bọ xít cũng làm gia tăng bệnh lem lép hạt.

  1. Biện pháp phòng trừ

– Chọn giống sạch bệnh, không dùng giống ở những ruộng có biểu hiện bệnh lem lép hạt.

– Trước khi ngâm ủ phải phơi khô hạt giống, bỏ những hạt lép, biến màu và xử lý hạt giống nhằm loại bỏ nấm và vi khuẩn tồn dư trên vỏ trấu.

– Biện pháp hóa học: Có thể dùng một số loại thuốc: Tilt Super 300EC; Supertim 300EC; Super- kostin 300EC,…

–  Gieo cấy, sạ sao cho khi lúa trỗ không trùng với thời kỳ mưa gió nhiều và khi lúa làm đòng, trỗ bông không nên để ruộng lúa bị thiếu nước. Kiểm tra thường xuyên để phát hiện bệnh sớm, đúng nguyên nhân để có biện pháp xử lý hiệu quả.

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