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CÁCH XỬ LÝ ĐỂ CHÔM CHÔM RA HOA NGHỊCH VỤ

Posted On May 29, 2017 at 1:52 pm by / 907 Comments

CÁCH XỬ LÝ ĐỂ CHÔM CHÔM RA HOA NGHỊCH VỤ


Tránh nước đọng làm ngập rễ, vì rễ được hút quá nhiều nước, lúc đó cây chỉ ra đọt, không thể trổ hoa.

Nhiều năm trở lại đây, tình hình thu hoạch chôm chôm mùa thuận thường xuyên hay bị điệp khúc “được mùa, rớt giá” vì trùng dịp vào mùa với chôm chôm vùng Long Khánh (tỉnh Đồng Nai) và trái vải Bắc Giang, cho nên một số nhà vườn xã Tân Phong đã mạnh dạn chuyển đổi cách làm để tăng thu nhập kinh tế cho gia đình, đó là mô hình xử lý chôm chôm ra hoa nghịch vụ.

Hiện nay, thời tiết nắng nóng là điều kiện thuận lợi cho nhà vườn xã Tân Phong thực hiện mô hình này. Hàng năm, vào khoảng tháng 6, tháng 7 âm lịch, sau khi quan sát khắp khu vườn thấy khoảng 90% số cây đã ra đọt từ 2-3 lần, khi lá ngã sang màu lụa là bắt đầu dùng ni lon làm màng phủ. Trước khi phủ, phải vét mương vườn cho sâu hơn bình thường , để tránh nước ứ lại ngập rễ là không tốt, phải đảm bảo mương khô cách mặt liếp từ 1 – 1,2m. Sau đó, sử dụng nilon làm màng phủ xung quanh gốc (tùy theo liếp đất lớn nhỏ, lựa nilon loại có kích cỡ phù hợp), khi làm kéo nilon tạo thành hình quả núi, tức ôm theo gốc sao cho độ cao cách mặt đất khoảng 1m, còn hai bên hạ thấp để khi có mưa nước dễ chảy xuống mương. Giữa những tấm nilon liền mí, cần nối với nhau bằng cách dùng kim khâu lại không nên để hở, còn khi nối giữa hai liếp với nhau, dùng dây nilon cột chặt vào màng phủ, chia nhiều đoạn cho đều để tạo độ phẳng phiu (không bị đùn), nước mưa dễ chảy. Lưu ý, khi có mưa to, mương đầy nước, phải dùng máy bơm ra kịp thời tránh nước đọng làm ngập rễ, nếu không làm được bước này thì xem như công dã tràng… vì rễ được hút quá nhiều nước, lúc đó cây chỉ ra đọt, không thể trổ hoa.

Theo một số nhà vườn đã từng thực hiện mô hình này cho biết, từ ngày phủ nilon cho đến lúc ra hoa khoảng 50 – 60 ngày, tùy theo thời tiết. Khi thấy chôm chôm ra hoa tương đối nhiều và đạt từ 70 – 80% thì dỡ nilon (số nilon này cần xếp lại cho kỹ có thể dùng được 3 mùa). Lúc đó cho nước vào mương, tưới xung quanh gốc tạo độ ẩm khi cây đã ra hoa, vì thiếu nước sẽ làm cho hoa rụng, đậu trái ít. Từ lúc ra hoa đến đậu trái khoảng 20-25 ngày và từ khi đậu trái cho đến thu hoạch khoảng 100 ngày, vụ nghịch thường vào tháng 11,12 âm lịch tất cả có như ý muốn hay không còn tùy thuộc vào cách chăm sóc của mỗi người. Kinh nghiệm dân gian ở đây là khi bà con nuôi đọt thì sử dụng phân lân và kali, nuôi hoa sử dụng kali và đạm ,còn nuôi trái sử dụng đạm, lân, tăng kali và cho thêm phân bón lá cao cấp để tạo trái to và màu rất đẹp.

Mặc dù, mô hình xử lý chôm chôm ra hoa nghịch vụ cho sản lượng thấp, tối đa chỉ đạt được khoảng 80% so với mùa thuận, nhưng về giá cả thì cao gấp 3-4 lần. Do đó, đã có một số nhà vườn đạt hiệu quả kinh tế rất cao và cách làm này được bà con học hỏi, trao đổi lẫn nhau rộng khắp địa bàn. Chính vì thế ,năm 2009 có gần 50% diện tích chôm chôm được áp dụng theo mô hình xử lý ra hoa nghịch vụ, so với cùng kỳ tăng 30%, đây là niềm vui chung cho các nhà vườn.

Tuy nhiên, không phải nhà vườn nào thực hiện mô hình xử lý chôm chôm ra hoa nghịch vụ cũng đạt kết quả tốt, đây là nỗi lo chung của các nhà vườn, vì nó còn tùy thuộc vào thời tiết, cách theo dõi, cách chăm sóc. Bởi, trước đây nhà vườn chỉ làm theo kinh nghiệm dân gian, truyền miệng lẫn nhau, hoàn toàn không có một kiến thức nào trong sách vở. Hiện nay, nhiều nhà vườn trồng chôm chôm ở Tân Phong rất cần sự quan tâm các ngành chức năng tổ chức các cuộc hội thảo để trang bị kiến thức về cây chôm chôm, đây cũng là yếu tố giúp nhà vườn Tân Phong trên lộ trình thực hiện VietGAP và GlobalGAP hướng đi mới cho vùng đất cù lao.

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